Explore entries from James Cook’s Endeavour journal for July 1770, while the ship was repaired at Endeavour River.
Tuesday 31st Fresh Gales at SE and hazy with rain in all PM and most part of the night — At 2 oClock in the AM I had thoughts of trying to warp the ship out of the harbour but upon my going first out in a boat I found it blow'd too fresh for such an attempt —
Monday 30th Winds at SE a fresh gale and fair weather in the PM, the remainder hazey with rain, but the winds tho more moderate kept in the SE quarter.
Sunday 29th Winds at SE a fresh breeze untill 5 AM at which time it fell Calm and soon after had a light breeze from the land, upon this I sent a boat to see what water was upon the bar / it being 2 hours ebb / and hove up the Anchor in order to put to sea, but upon the return of the boat came too again as there were only 13 feet water upon the bar which was 6 Inches less water then what the Ship draw'd.
after this I sent the Yawl to look for turtle as those we had got before were nearly all expended, about 8 oClock the sea breeze set in again which put an end to our sailing this day after which I sent the Pinnace to haul the Sain who returnd with only 20 pounds of fish —
Saturday 28th Winds and weather as above without the least variation the whole of the 24 hours. The Carpenters finished caulking the Ship —
Friday 27th Very fresh Gales at SEBS and fair weather In the AM caught as much fish as came to ¾ Ib a man and Mr Gore shott one of the Animals before spoke off which weighed 80 lb and 54 exclusive of the entrails, skin and head, this was as large as the most we have seen —.
Thursday 26th Winds and weather as yesterday Such people as can be spared from the necessary duties of the Ship are empd fishing and gatering greens and other refreshments —
Wednesday 25th Fresh gales at SE and fair weather. In the evening the yawl came in having not been able to strike one turtle on account of the blowing weather nor can we catch much fish with the sain in the harbour.
Tuesday 24th Winds and weather continues the same — Employ'd makeing rope, caulking the Ship, fishing &Ca —
23th Fresh breezes in the SE quarter which so long as it continues will confine us in port —
Yesterday in the AM I sent some people into the Country to gather greens on of which Straggle'd from the rest and met with four of the natives by a fire on which they were broiling a fowl and the hind leg of one of the animals before spoke of, he had the prescience of mind not to run from them / being unarm'd / least they should pursue him, but went and sit down by them and after he had sit a little while and they had felt his hands and other parts of his body they suffer'd him to go away without offering the least insult and perceiving that he did not go right for the ship they directed him which way to go
Sunday 22d Fresh breezes at SE and ESE. Employ'd as yesterday.
In the AM as the wind would not permit us to sail I sent the yawl out to catch turtle in opening of one to day we found sticking thro' both shoulder bones a woodon harpoon or turtle peg 15 Inches long bearbed at the end such as we have seen among the natives, this proves to a demonstration that they strike turtle I suppose at the time they come aShore to lay their Eggs for they certainly have no boat fit to do this at sea or that will carry a turtle and this harpoon must have been a good while in as the wound was quite heald up —
01st Strong breezes at SE and Clowdy weather. In the PM sent a boat to haul the sain which return'd with as much fish as came to 1¾ lb a man. The yawl return'd with only one turtle which was caught in the nett for it blew too hard for the boat to strike any. In the morning I sent her out again but she was obliged to return not being able to get to windward —
Carpenters employ'd in repairing
overhauling the boats and overhauling the pumps and as the wind would not permit us to sail I sent the boatswain with some hands a shore makeing rope and a petty officer with two men to gather greens for the Ships company —
90th Fresh breezes at SE and fair weather. In the PM got every thing on board the Ship, new berth'd her and let her swing with the tide.
In the night the Master return'd with the Pinnace and reported that there was no safe passage for the Ship to the northward — At low water in the AM I went and sounded and buoy'd the bar, being now ready to put to sea the first oppertunity —
Thursday 19th Gentle breezes at SE and fair weather. Employ'd geting every thing in readiness for sea —
In the AM we were viseted by 10 or 11 of the natives the most of them came from the other side of the
harbour River where we saw six or seven more the most of them women and like the men quite naked; those that came on board were very desirous of having some of our turtle and took the liberty to haul two to the gang way to put over the side but being disapointed in it this they grew a little troublesome, and was were for throwing every thing overboard they could lay their hands upon; as we had no victuals dress'd at this time I offer'd them some bread to eat, which they rejected with scorn as I believe they would have done any thing else excepting turtle —
soon after this they all went a shore Mr Banks my self and five or six
more of our people being a shore at the same time, emmediatly upon their landing one of them took a handfull of dry grass and lighted it at a fire we had a shore and before we well know'd what he was going about he made a large circuit round about us and set fire to the grass on the ground in his way which and in an Instant burst like wild fire the whole place was in flames, luckily at this time we had hardly any thing ashore besides the forge and a sow with a Litter of young pigs one of which was scorched to death in the fire —
as soon as they had done this they all went to a place where some of our people were washing and where all our nets and a good deal of linnen were laid out to dry, here with the greatest obstinacy they again set fire to the grass which I and some others who were present could not prevent untill I was obliged to fire a musquet load with small shott at one of the rig leaders which sent them off.
as we were apprised of this last attempt of theirs we got the fire out before it got head, but the first spread like wild fire in the woods and grass.
nNotwithstanding my fireing in which one must have been a little hurt because we saw some a few drops of blood on some of the linnen he had cross'd gone over, they did not go far from us for we soon after heard their voices in the woods upon which Mr Banks and I and 3 or 4 More went to look for them and very soon met them comeing toward us as they had each 4 or 5 darts a piece and not knowing their intention we seized upon six or seven of the first darts we met with, this alarmed them so much that they all made off and we followd them for near half a Mile and than set down and call'd to them and they stop'd also;
after some little unintelligible conversation had pass'd
between us they lay down their darts and came to us in a very friendly manner we now return'd them the darts we had taken from them which reconciled every thing. We now found there were 4 strangers among them that we had not seen before and these were interduce'd to us by name by the others: the man which we suppos'd to have been wounded struck with small shott was gone off, but he could not be much hurt as he was at a great distance when I fired. They all came along with us abreast of the ship where they stay'd a short time and then went away and soon after set the woods on fire about a Mile and a half and two miles from us —
Wednesday 18th Winds at ESE a gentle breeze In the PM I sent the Master and one of the mates in the Pinnace to the northward to look for a Channell that way clear of the shoals.
Mr Banks, Dr Solander and my self took a turn into the woods on the other side of the water where we met with five of the natives and altho we had not seen any of them before they came to us without showing the least signs of fear, two of these wore necklaces made of shells which they seem'd to Value as they would not part with them —
In the evening the Yawl came in with three turtle and early in the AM she went out again — about 8 oClock we
was were viseted by several of the natives who now became more familiar than ever,
soon after this Mr Banks and I went over to the south side of the
harbour River and travel'd six or 8 miles along shore to the northward where we assended a high hill from whence I we had an extensive view of the Sea Coast to leeward which was cover'd with shoals as far as the eye could see afforded us a Meloncholy prospect of the difficultys we are incounter, for in what ever direction we turn'd our eys Shoals inumberable were to be seen
after this we return'd to the Ship without meeting with any thing remarkable and found several of the natives on board, at this time we had 12
Tortoise Turtle Turtle upon our decks which they took more notice of then any thing else in the ship as I was told by the officers for their curiosity was satisfied before I got on board and they went away soon after
Tuesday 17th Wind at SE a fresh breeze. People employ'd as yesterday and seting up the rigging. In the evening the Pinnace returnd with three turtle, two of which the Yawl caught and sent in. At 7h..41'..17" PM Observ'd the first Satillite of Jupiter to Emerge; the same Emersion happen'd at Greenwich at 10h..
52 00'..52" in the AM the difference is 14..19'..35" = to 214..53'..45" of Longitude the observation made on the 29th of last Month gave 214..42'..30" the mean is 214..48'..7½
" which this place is west of Greenwich —
Monday 16th Fore and latter parts gentle breezes at ENE, in the night had light airs & Calm —
In the Evening the yawl came in with 4 turtle and a large sting-ray and soon after went out again but the Pinnace did not return as I expected In the AM employ'd geting on board the Cables —
At the same time I went upon one of the high hill on the north side of the
harbour River from which I had an extensive view of the inland country which consisted of hills vallies and large plains, agreeably deversified with woods and lawns —
Sunday 15th Gentle breezes
andt SE and East In the PM got on board the spare sails and sundry other Articles — In the AM as the people did not work upon the Ship one of the Petty officers was disireous of going out to catch turtle I let him have the Pinnace for that purpose and sent the long boat to haul the Sain who caught about 60 pounds of fish —
Today we din'd of the animal shott yesterday & thought it excellent food
Saturday 14th Gentle breezes at SE and Hazey weather, In the PM compleated our water
and got on board all the Bread and part of the Boatswains stores — in the evening sent the turtlers out again.
In the AM employd geting on board stone ballast and airing the Spare sails — Mr Gore being in the Country shott one of the Animals before spoke of it was a small one of the sort weighing only 28 pound clear of the entrails.
its body was length the head neck and shoulders of this Animal was very small in proportion to the other parts — it was hare lip'd but the head and ears and teeth were most like a Hares of any animal I know the tail was nearly as long as the body, thick next the rump and tapering towards the end —
the fore legs were 8 Inch long and the hind 22. its progression is by hoping or Jumping 7 or 8 feet at each hop upon its hind legs only for in this it makes no use of the fore, which seem to be only design'd for scratching in the ground &Ca, the Skin is cover'd with a short hairy fur of a dark Mouse or Grey Colour —
Excepting the head and ears which I thought was something like a Hare's, it bears no sort of resemblance to any European animal I ever saw, it is said to bear much resemblance to the Gerbua excepting in size the Gerbua being no larger than a common rat —
Friday 13th Gentle breezes from the SE in the day and Calm or light airs from the land in the night Employ'd takeing on board water, stores &Ca At noon the Yawl returnd with one turtle and a large sting-ray
Thursday 12th Winds and weather as yesterday and the employment of the people the same. At 2 oClock in the AM the Yawl came on board and brought 3 turtle and a large skeat and as their was a probability of succeeding in this kind of fishery I sent her out again after breakfast
about this time 5 of the natives came over and stay'd with us all the forenoon there were 7 in the whole 5 Men a woman and a boy, these two last stay'd on the point of sand on the other side of the
harbour River about 200 Yards from us, we could very clearly see with our glasses that the woman was as naked as ever she was born even those parts which I allways before now thought Nature would have taught a woman to conceal were uncover'd —
Wednesday 11th Gentle land and sea breezes, Employ'd airing the bread stowing away water stores &Ca In the night Mr Gore and the Master returnd with the long-boat and brought with them one turtle and a few shell fish the Yawl Mr Gore left upon the shoal with Six men to endeavour to Strike more turtle.
In the morning four of the natives made us a nother short visit 3 of them had been with us the preceeding day and the other was a stranger — one of these men had a hole through the Bridge of his nose in which he stuck a peice of bone as thick as my finger, seeing this we examined all their noses and found that they had all holes for the same purpose, they had likewise holes in their ears but no ornaments hanging to them, they had bracelets upon their arms made of hair and like hoops of small cord; they some times must wear a kind of fillet about their heads for one of them had applied some part of an Old shirt which I had given them to this use —
Tuesday 10th Winds and weather as yesterday. Employ'd hoisting on board and stowing away the ground tier of water. in the PM saw Seven or eight of the Natives on the South side of the
Harbour River and two of them came down upon the sandy point opposite the ship but as soon as I put off in a boat in order to speak with them they run away as hard fast as they could.
At 11 oClock Mr Banks, who had gone out to sea with Mr Molineux the Master, returnd in his own small boat and gave but a very bad account of our turtle catchers, at the time he left them which was about 6 oClock, they had not got one nor were they likely to get any and yet the Master was so obstinate that he would not return which obliged me to send Mr Gore out in the yawl this moring to order the boat and people in in case they could not be imploy'd there to some advantage —
In the AM 4 of the Natives came down to the sandy point on the north side of the harbour, having along with them a small wooden Canoe with outriggers in which they seemd to be employ'd striking fish &Ca some were for going over in a boat to them but this I would not suffer but let them alone without seeming to take any notice of them, at length 2
of them came in the Canoe so near the Ship as to take some things we throw'd them, after this they went away and brought over the other two and came again along side nearer then they had done before and took such trifles as we gave them.
after this they landed close to the Ship and all 4
came went a shore carrying their arms with them, but Tupia soon prevaild upon them to lay down their arms and come and set down by him after which most of us went to them and made them again some presents and stay'd by them untill dinner time when we made them understand that we w asere going to eat and ask'd them by signs to go with us but this they declined and as soon as we left them they went away in their canoe.
one of these men was something above the Middle age, the other three were young, none of them were above 5½ feet high and all their
features limbs proportionately small, they were wholy naked their skins the Colour of wood soot or a dark chocolate colour and this seem'd to be their natural colour, their hair was black, lank and crope'd short and neither wooly nor frizled nor did they want any of their fore teeth as Dampier has mentioned those did he saw on the western side of this Country, Some part of their bodies had been painted with red and one of them had his uper lip and breast paint with streakes of white which he called Carbanda: their features were far from being disagreeable, the Voices were soft and tunable and they could easily repeat many words after us, but neither us nor Tupia could understand one word they said —
Monday 9th Gentle breezes in the day at SE in the night calm — In the PM Mr Gore and Mr Banks returnd having met with nothing remarkable they were about 3 or 4 Leags up in the country without finding hardly any Variation either in the soil or produce:
In the evening the Master returnd having been seven Leagues out at sea and at that distance off saw shoals without him and was of opinion that there was no geting out to sea that way, in his return he touched upon one of the shoals the same as he was upon the first time he was out.
here he saw a great number of turtle three of which he caught weighing 791 pounds. this occasiond my sending him out again this morning provided with proper geer for Strikeing them he having before nothing but a boat hook — Carpenters smiths and Coopers at their respective employments and the seamn employ'd geting on board stone ballast.
This day all hands feasted upon turtle for the first time —
Sunday 8th Gentle breezes at SE and clear weather. Early I sent the Master in a boat out to sea to sound again about the shoals because the account he had given of the Channell before mentioned was to me by no means satisfactory like wise sent some hands to haul the sain who caught near 80 pound of fish, the rest of the people I gave leave to go into the country —
Saturday 7th Fresh breezes at SE and fair weather Employ'd geting on board Coals ballast, &Ca and caulking the Ship a work that could not be done while she lay aground. The Armourer and his mate are still at work at the forge making and repairing sundry articles in the Iron way —
Friday 6th Do Weather. At low water in the PM had hardly 4 feet water under the ship yet could not repair the sheathing that was beat off the place being all under water, one of the Carpenters crew, a Man I could trust, went down and examined it and found three streaks of the sheathing gone about 7 or 8 feet long and the Main plank a little rub'd, this accout agrees with the report of the Master and others that were under her bottom before.
The Carpenter who I look upon to be well skilld in his profission and a good judge of these matters was of opinion that this was of little concequence and as I found that it would be difficult if not impractical for us to get under her bottom to repair it, I resolved to spend no more time about it
accordingly at High-water hove her off and Moor'd her along side the beach where the stores &Ca lay and in the AM got everything in readiness for takeing them on board and at the same time got on board 8 tuns of water and stowed in the ground tier in the after hold.
In the Morning Mr Banks and Lieutt Gore with three men went in a small boat up the
harbour River with a view to stay two or 3 days to try to kill some of the animals we have seen about this place
Thursday 5th Strong breezes at SE and fair weather. In the PM warped the ship over and at high-water laid her a shore on the sand bank on the south side of the
Harbour River for I was afraid to lay her broad side to the shore where she lay before because the ground lies with too great a decent and she hath already received some damage by laying there these last neep tides, at least she still makes water —
Wednesday 4th Stong gales at SE and fair weather — In the PM the fishing party returnd with the usual success — At High-water hove the Ship a float — In the AM Employ'd triming her upon an even Keel intending to lay her ashore once more to come at her bottom under the larboard Main chains —
Tuesday 3rd Winds at SE. fore and middle parts a
fresh gentle breeze the remainder a fresh gale. In the evening the fishing party returnd having got as much fish as came to 2 lb a man; at High-water Attempted to heave the Ship off but did not succeed —
At Noon the Master returnd and reported that he had found a passage out to sea between the shoals which passage lies out ENE or EBN from the
harbours Rivers mouth — he found these shoals to consist of Coral rocks, he landed upon one which drys at low-water where he found very large cockles and a variety of other shell fish a quantity of which he brought away with him. He told me that he was 5 Leagues out at Sea having at that distance of 21 fathom water and judged him self to be without all the shoals which I very much doubted, after this he came in shore and and stood to the northward where he met with a number of shoals laying a little distant from the shore —
about 9 oClock in the evening he landed in a bay about 3 Leagues to the northward of this place where he disturbed some of the natives whome he supposed to be at supper; they all fled upon his approach and left him some fresh Sea Eggs and a fire ready lighted behind them but there was neither house nor hut near —
Altho these Shoals lay within sight of the coast and abound very much with shell fish and other small fish which are to be caught at low-water in holes in the rocks — yet the natives never visit them for if they did we must have seen of these large shells on shore about their fire places, the reson I do suppose is,
for fish that pa that they have no boats that they dare venture so far out at Sea in —
Monday 2d Do Weather. In the PM the fishing party caught as much fish as came to 2 pound a man those that were in the Country met with nothing new
Early in the AM I sent the Master in the Pinnace out of the Harbour to Sound about the Shoals in the offening and to look for a Channel to the northward. at this time we had a breeze of wind from the land which continued till about 9 oClock, what makes me mention this is because it is the first land breeze we have had sence we have been in this
harbour River —
At low-water lashed some empty Casks under the Ships bows being in some hopes of floating her the next high-water and sent some hands afishing while others were employ'd in refiting the Ship —
Sunday 1st Gentle breezes at SE and clowdy weather with some gentle showers in the morning — In the PM the People returnd from hauling the Sain having caught as much fish as came to 2½ pound a Man — no one on board having more than a nother, the few greens we got I cause[d] to be boild a mong the Pease and makes a very good mess which together with the fish is a great refreshment to the people —
In the AM a party of men / one from each mess / went again afishing and all the rest I gave leave to go into the Country knowing that there was no danger from the natives. To day at noon the Thermometer in the shade ris to 87 which is two or three degrees higher then it has been on any day before —