'I am a Widow's Son, outlawed and my orders must be obeyed'. With these chilling words bushranger Ned Kelly ended the Jerilderie letter, a detailed written justification of his actions in the year before his death.
Kelly's words, transcribed in the Jerilderie letter, are regarded by some as an early call for an Australian republic.
Ned Kelly (1854–1880) is one of Australia’s best-known historical characters. The convicted murderer and self-confessed stock thief is also the only bushranger known to have left a detailed written justification of his actions.
Kelly attempted to have his ‘manifesto’ published when his gang held up the small New South Wales town of Jerilderie in 1879.
The National Museum holds publican John Hanlon’s transcription of this letter. The original is part of the State Library of Victoria collection.
The National Museum's collection includes a plaster death mask, made soon after Kelly's body was taken down from the gallows, lantern slides showing Kelly scenes, a police report and a ceremonial sword awarded to a police officer after the Glenrowan siege.
Hero or villain?
Ned Kelly was born at Beveridge, Victoria, in about December 1854.
He first came to public notice when, in 1865, he saved seven-year-old Richard Shelton from drowning in Hughes Creek at Avenel.
By 1866, his widowed mother had moved her family to north-eastern Victoria.
Ned had become the family breadwinner. He took on general bush labouring work, timber-cutting and even served a brief apprenticeship with bushranger Harry Power.
Kelly's trouble with the law quickly escalated through indecent behaviour, assault and stock theft to police killer.
Kelly Gang outlawed
Three policemen were shot dead at Stringybark Creek in October 1878. The Victorian Government responded by outlawing Ned and Dan Kelly, Steve Hart and Joe Byrne. This meant they could be shot on sight by anybody at any time.
For two years the gang roamed freely through north-eastern Victoria and the Riverina, robbing the banks at Euroa in December 1878 and Jerilderie in February 1879.
Finally, at Glenrowan in June 1880, they donned suits of armour to make a dramatic but doomed stand against the Victorian police.
Dan Kelly, Hart and Byrne were killed and Ned Kelly was taken prisoner. Tried and found guilty for the murder of Constable Lonigan at Stringybark Creek, Ned Kelly was hanged at Melbourne Gaol on 11 November 1880.
Kelly's 'manifesto' is a 56-page document he tried to have published at Jerilderie in February 1879. It appears to be the final working document of one that was first circulated at Euroa in December 1878.
It reflects the voice of a man who feels he has been deeply wronged. He admits to crimes but claims he was forced into them by a corrupt police force.
Kelly demands that squatters share their property with the poor. The document ends with a violent threat against all who oppose him: 'I am a Widow's Son, outlawed and my orders must be obeyed'.
Copies of the document were made by the police and by publican John Hanlon. Hanlon's transcription of the Jerilderie letter was purchased by the National Museum at auction.