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This online feature has been adapted from a website initially developed in 2008 by the National Museum of Australia with support from the Australia China Friendship Society.

The Australia China Friendship Society was formed in 1951–52 and aims to promote and extend friendship and understanding between the people of Australia and China. In 1988 the society published a booklet about the scroll which includes the research text prepared by Mo Yimei and related information:

J Culnane (ed.), Harvest of Endurance, A History of Chinese in Australia 1788–1988, Australia China Friendship Society, ID Studio, Sydney, 1988.

This online feature includes new colour-matched images of the scroll captured in early 2019 by National Museum of Australia photographers George Serras and Jason McCarthy, with assistance from Conservator Nick Zihrul and Registrar Matthew Doney.

Harvest of Endurance Scroll: A History of the Chinese in Australia, 17881988. Artist Mo Xiangyi, assisted by Wang Jingwen, with researcher Mo Yimei. Ink on paper, mounted on silk and paper. Copyright Australia China Friendship Society. National Museum of Australia


J Culnane (ed.), Harvest of Endurance: A History of the Chinese in Australia 1788–1988, Australia China Friendship Society, ID Studio, Sydney, 1988

Australian Encyclopaedia, Australian Geographic Pty Ltd, Terry Hills, 1996

Australian Encyclopaedia, The Grolier Society of Australia, Halstead Press, Sydney, 1965

Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1993

Bon-Wai Chou, ‘The Chinese in Victoria’, MA thesis, University of Melbourne, 1993

Robert W Burchfield (ed.), A Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary, vol. II, H-N, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1976

Bureau of Immigration and Population Research, Community Profiles, 1991 Census China Born, Australian Government Printing Service, Canberra, 1994

Patricia Buckley Ebrey, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, Cambridge University Press, Hong Kong, 1996

Netta Ellis, Braidwood, Dear Braidwood, Pirie Printers, Canberra, 1989

Netta Ellis, Braidwood Heritage, Braidwood & District Historical Society, Canberra, 1986

Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th edn, Micropedia, Chicago, 1989

Shirley Fitzgerald, Red Tape, Gold Scissors: The Story of Sydney’s Chinese, State Library of NSW Press, Sydney, 1997

Bruce Howard, 15 days in ’56: The First Australian Olympics, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1995

Jennifer Isaacs, Pioneer Women of the Bush and Outback, Landsdowne Press, Singapore, 1998

James Jupp (ed.), The Australian People, Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1988

Kwong Sue Duk: A Man of Family (video recording), Double Up Video, Cairns, 1996

Monash Biographical Dictionary of 20th Century Australians, Reed References, Port Melbourne, 1994

Leigh Nomchong, personal communication, Canberra, 1999

Graeme Davison, John Hirst and Stuart Macintyre (eds), Oxford Companion to Australian History, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1998

David Parlett, Oxford History of Board Games, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999

Gwenda Painter, The River Trade Wool and Steamers, Turton & Armstrong with The Pioneer Settlement Press, Wahroonga, NSW, 1987

Ruth Park, The Companion Guide to Sydney, Collins, Sydney, 1973

Prime Ministers of Australia (CD ROM), National Museum of Australia, Canberra, 1996

Joan Rydon, A Biographical Register of the Commonwealth Parliament 1901–1972, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1975

Meir Shahar and Robert P Weller (eds), Unruly Gods: Divinity and Society in China, University of Hawai’i Press, Honolulu, 1996

Thomas Tsu-Wee Tan, Your Chinese Roots, Times Books International, Singapore, 1998

Margaret Tart (ed.), The Life of Quong Tart or How a Foreigner Succeeded in a British Community, WM Maclardy, Sydney, 1911

Roy Willis (ed.), World Mythology, The Illustrated Guide, RD Press, London, 1993

Bruce Wetterau (ed.), World History, Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1983

Ann C Howie (ed.), Who’s Who in Australia, Information Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney, 1991

Who’s Who in Australia, Information Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney, 1996

Kenrith A Cadman (ed.), Who’s Who in Australia, Bicentennial Edition, Herald & Weekly Times, Melbourne, 1988

Maryanne Netto et al (eds.), Who’s Who in Australia, Information Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney, 1998

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