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Documents include letters, newspaper articles, government reports, archival records and cabinet submissions that are referred to in the Civil rights sections:

Source: Commonwealth of Australia, Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), House of Representatives, 6 March 1947, pp 435–439

The graphic artwork on this poster was intended to mobilise concerned citizens.

Source: Blackburn papers, MS 11749, box 85, State Library of Victoria

Source: Council for Aboriginal Rights, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

Source: Commonwealth of Australia, Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), House of Representatives, 1 May 1947, pp 1826–1828

Shirley Andrews to Lady Jessie Street, 27 August 1956.

Source: Jessie Street Papers, MS 2683/10/124, National Library of Australia, Canberra

The Report of the Select Committee appointed to enquire into Native Welfare Conditions in the Laverton-Warburton Range Area was presented by William Grayden on 12 December 1956. It was commonly referred to as the 'Grayden Report'.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Following the publication of this Tribune article, the daily newspapers also reported on the Western Australia Parliamentary Select Committee Report.

Source: Tribune, Wednesday, 9 January 1957, p. 3

Editorial comment such as this expressed 'a burning sense of shame' if the reports of starvation in the Warburton Ranges were true. A 'quick, independent enquiry' was needed, The Age editorialised.

Source: The Age, 21 January 1957

Organisations such as the Australian Natives' Association, as well as individuals, wrote letters to the Commonwealth government expressing their concern for the people still living nomadically in the Warburton Ranges.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Anna Vroland was an active member of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.

Source: The Age, 30 January 1957

The photo chosen to support Murdoch's argument was not a recent picture as he claimed. Rather it was taken in 1953 by Bill Grayden.

Source: The News (Adelaide), 1 February 1957, p. 3

This leaflet was produced by the Women's Christian Temperance Union to refute Rupert Murdoch's misrepresentation of conditions in the Warburton Ranges in 1957 which was published in his newspaper.

Source: Box 82, Vroland Papers, MS 11749, State Library of Victoria

The Victorian division of this professional association took an active part over a number of years in pressuring the federal government to take a more active role in addressing Aboriginal disadvantage.

Source: The Age, 3 February 1957

This meeting marked a step forward in stimulating a community conscience over the plight of Aboriginal nomads whose lives were made more difficult by incursions into the desert such as weapons' testing and mining in the 1950s.

Source: The Age, 6 February 1957

Missions such as the United Aborigines Mission at Warburton were the only places providing assistance for the desert nomads when times were tough.

Source: The Age, 8 February 1957

'READ THIS AND THEN SEE IF YOU'RE STILL PROUD TO BE AN AUSTRALIAN. IF YOU'RE NOT, DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT', the paper editorialised.

Source: Mercury, Melbourne, 28 March 1957

One of many reactions to the filming of the Warburton Ranges film, under the title Manslaughter, on channel GTV 9.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Following the telecast of the Warburton Ranges film under the title Manslaughter, shocked viewers wrote letters such as this one to the Prime Minister and to their local members.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

The petition was launched at a meeting in Sydney Town Hall, 1 May 1957.

Source: Tribune, 1 May 1957

One of many examples of individuals expressing their concern to the Prime Minister after seeing the film Manslaughter.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

This is one of many examples of letters responding to citizen concern.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

One of many examples of letters from organisations and individuals asking the Commonwealth government to respond to nomadic Aboriginal people suffering from malnutrition in the desert.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Public servants were kept busy replying to letters from organisations and individuals.

Source: A452, 1957/245, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Source: Council for Aboriginal Rights, MS 12913/26/4, State Library of Victoria

Flyer advertising the meeting in the Sydney Town Hall at which the Aboriginal-Australian Fellowship's petition was launched.

Source: Faith Bandler and Len Fox, The Time Was Ripe: A History of the Aboriginal-Australian Fellowship (1956–1969), Alternative Publishing Co-operative, Chippendale, 1983

Source: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, MS 9377, State Library of Victoria

This was the first of many petitions which the Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement ran to press for a referendum to get the federal government to accept responsibility in Aboriginal affairs.

Source: Barry Christophers Papers, MS 7992, box 16, National Library of Australia, Canberra

This form was circulated throughout the country during 1962–1963.

Source: Box 16, 'Petition referendum', Barry Christopher Papers, 1951–1981, MS7992/8, National Library of Australia

The national petition for a referendum to change the constitution was launched in October 1962.

Source: The Age, 2 October 1962

Gordon Bryant, writing here as the President of the Aborigines Advancement League, Victoria, points out that Aboriginal people are beset with a more complicated set of laws than other Australians.

Source: Smoke Signals, October 1962

Shirley Andrews, FCAA research officer, prepared this leaflet for the 1962 national petition campaign.

Source: Council for Aboriginal Rights, MS 12913/11/3, State Library of Victoria

The 1962–63 national petition campaign aimed to collect 250,000 signatures nation wide. The actual count was approximately 103,000 signatures. This Victorian National Petition Campaign Committee petition argued the case for the referendum.

Source: Box 16, 'Petition referendum', Barry Christophers Papers, 1951–1981, MS7992/8, National Library of Australia, Canberra

Parliamentary debate, Constitution Alteration (Aborigines) Bill 1964. Arthur Calwell, Second reading speech, House of Representatives, 14 May 1964.

Source: Hansard, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 14 May 1964, pp. 1902–1918

(note pages 19–21 are related documents) Confidential for Cabinet, Submission no. 660 Constitutional amendments: sections 24 to 27, 51 (xxvi), 127 Attorney-General Bill Snedden puts the case for the amendment of section 51 (xxvi) and the repeal of section 127 and for these changes to be put at referendum with proposed changes to the number of parliamentarians.

Source: National Archives of Australia, A5827/1, vol. 20

(note pages 14–16 are related documents) Confidential for Cabinet, Submission no. 1009 Constitutional amendments: sections 2–27, 127 and 51 (xxvi) Attorney-General Bill Snedden sets out the case for amendment of section 51 (xxvi) of the Australian Constitution.

Source: National Archives of Australia, A5827/1, vol. 31

Frank Engel, General Secretary of the Australian Council of Churches, set out the main arguments for land rights in this pamphlet.

Source: Box 11, Folder 12, Gordon Bryant Papers, MS 8256, National Library of Australia

Parliamentary debates, Constitution Alteration Bill (Parliament) 1965 and Constitution Alteration Bill (Repeal of Section 127) Bill 1965. Robert Menzies, Second Reading speech, House of Representatives, 11 November 1965.

Source: Hansard, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 11 November 1965, pp. 2635–2640

Parliamentary debates, Constitution Alteration (Aborigines) Bill 1966. William Wentworth, Second Reading Speech, House of Representatives, 10 March 1966.

Source: Hansard, Parliamentary Debates, House of Representatives, 10 March 1966

This petition was prepared by the Legislative Reform Committee of FCAATSI. It shows the hopes which this committee had for greater Commonwealth involvement in Aboriginal affairs.

Source: Barrie Pittock personal papers

(note pages 9–10 is a related document) Confidential for Cabinet, Submission no. 46 Constitutional amendment: Aborigines Attorney-General Nigel Bowen recommends that the government hold a referendum to 'seek legislative power for the Commonwealth with respect to aborigines' by omitting the words 'other than the aboriginal race in any State' from Section 51 (xxvi) of the Constitution.

Source: National Archives of Australia, A5842/2, vol. 1, submission 46, decision 1979

This is the official government argument for a YES vote for the Constitutional Alteration (Aboriginals) Bill 1967.

Source: A463, 1965/5445, Constitution alteration bills — procedure in parliament and referendum, 1967, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Gaining the public support of the churches was crucial at a time when many Australians were influenced by the views of the clergy.

Source: Gordon Bryant papers, MS 8256, National Library of Australia

Political commentator explained that a 'No' vote would be understood overseas as meaning that Australians were opposed to advancing the welfare of Aboriginal people.

Source: The Age, 7 April 1967

Voting in the referendum Letters to the Editor from B Pittock, LK Appleton, Brian and Mary Cotterell and WJ Orme.

Source: Letters to the Editor

Letter to the Prime Minister from the Public Relations Director, Harold Blair Aboriginal Children's Project, urging him to publicly support the vote YES campaign, 10 May 1967.

Source: National Archives of Australia

Faith Bandler spoke to Melbourne University students urging them to vote for the Aboriginal referendum.

Source: The Sun (Melbourne), 19 May 1967

Ruby Hammond working to win the support of Adelaide politician, Andrew Jones, for a YES vote on the Aboriginal question.

Source: Series 11, Folder 11 (Box 175), Gordon Bryant Papers, MS 8256, National Library of Australia, Canberra

Well-known and respected Aboriginal leaders such as Bill Onus helped to create positive support for the referendum.

Source: Herald and Weekly Times, May 1967

Produced by the Australian Council of Salaried and Professional Associations, a FCAATSI affiliate.

Source: Papers of Gordon Bryant, MS 8256, Box 175, National Library of Australia

This Vote YES poster was authorised by Joe McGinness, President of the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.

Source: Gordon Bryant Papers, 1917–1991, MS 8256/11, Box 175, National Library of Australia

Images of babies and children were frequently used in the referendum campaign.

Source: Box 175, Gordon Bryant Papers, 1917–1991, MS8256/11, National Library of Australia

Images of children — one white, one black — were commonly used in the pamphlets produced by activist organisations to put the case for a YES vote on the Aboriginal question.

Source: Gordon Bryant Papers, 1917–1991, MS8256/11, Box 175, in folder 'Campaign material — referendum regarding Aboriginal affairs 27.5.67', National Library of Australia

Once the outcome of the referendum was known, Stan Davey sent a telegram to the Prime Minister assuring him of his support.

Source: National Archives of Australia

This article provides an analysis of the voting patterns by state.

Source: The Australian, 29 May 1967

The Minister for Territories advises

Source: A1209, 1967/1512, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Letter from Kath Walker to Harold Holt, May 1967.

Source: A1209, 1967/1512, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Perkins' submission on the Aboriginal question.

Source: A1209, 1967/1512, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Letter from Harold Holt to Kath Walker, June 1967.

Source: A1209, 1967/1512, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Letter from William Wentworth to Harold Holt, June 1967.

Source: A1209, 1967/1512, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Letter from Queensland Members of Parliament to the Prime Minister, September 1967.

Source: A1209, 1967/1512, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Government silence followed the electors' request that they take more responsibility for Aboriginal Australians leading to Bryant's prompting question.

Source: Smoke Signals, October 1967

Confidential for Cabinet, Submission No. 88 Aborigines.

Source: A1209, 1967/1512, National Archives of Australia, Canberra

Dr HC 'Nugget' Coombs was appointed to head the new Council for Aboriginal Affairs.

Source: The Australian, 3 November 1967

Natives (Citizenship Rights) Act, 1944–1951, Western Australia. An Act to provide for the acquisition of full rights of citizenship by Aborigine natives. Assented to 23 December 1944.

Source: Western Australia, Government Gazette, 29 February 1952

Source: Commonwealth of Australia, Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), House of Representatives, 8 June 1950, pp 3976–3981

Source: United Nations Association of Australia, 1957

This register was commonly referred to as 'The Stud Book' by its critics.

Source: Northern Territory, Government Gazette, 13 May 1957

Natives (Citizenship Rights) Amendment Act 1958, Western Australia. An Act to amend the Natives (Citizenship Rights) Act 1944–1951. Assented to 23 December 1958.

Source: Western Australia, Government Gazette

Douglas Lockwood, who knew Namatjira, reported on the court case. He was critical of both the legislation and the federal government's handling of this affair.

Source: Douglas Lockwood, The Herald (Melbourne), 8 October 1958

Reporting of the trial of Albert Namatjira was sympathetic, though sensational coverage often hid the facts of the case; that becoming a citizen was at the cost of relinquishing ordinary social relationships with kinsfolk.

Source: Various Australian newspapers 1958

Activists such as Shirley Andrews from the Council for Aboriginal Rights and Stan Davey from the Victoria Aborigines Advancement League used the letters pages to draw attention to the broader implications of the Namatjira court case.

Source: Shirley Andrews, Letter to the Editor, The Herald, Melbourne, 11 October 1958; Stan Davey, Letter to the Editor, The Age, Melbourne, 12 December 1958

This letter explains that theoretically Aboriginal Australians are citizens, but their rights as such are constrained by State legislation.

Source: 9 July 1959, Box 10/4, Council for Aboriginal Rights (Vic.), Papers, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

The Minister for Territories, Paul Hasluck, reported the definition of assimilation and the agreement reached by the States at the 1961 Native Welfare Conference to the House of Representatives, 20 April 1961.

Source: Commonwealth of Australia, Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), House of Representatives, 20 April 1961, p. 1051

Source: The Ordinances of the Northern Territory of Australia in force on 1st January 1961, vol. 3, Commonwealth Government Printer

'The Australian Aborigines: a summary of their situation in all states in 1962', prepared by Shirley Andrews, campaign organiser, Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement.

Source: Box 3/4, Council for Aboriginal Rights (Vic.), Papers, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

Dr Barry Christophers went through the Register of Wards noting the frequent use of insulting and disparaging names used in this official register of Northern Territory Aborigines.

Source: The Guardian, 27 February 1964

Source: Daily Mirror, Sydney, 2 February 1965

Cartoonist John Frith comments on the Freedom Ride.

Source: Melbourne Herald, 20 February 1965

Source: Federal Council for Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, Reports and Resolutions of the 8th Annual Conference on Aboriginal Affairs, April 1965

Source: Papers of the Council for Aboriginal Rights, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

Source: Crux, journal of the Australian Student Christian Movement, vol. 68, no. 3, June–July 1965

'A great day for Beverley Joy', written by Estelle Sharpe (daughter of the missionaries at Kurrawang), extols the benefits of assimilation into white society provided by mission education.

Source: Western Mail, 18 March 1954

Norman Bilson (Wangkai name WALARU), Alec Bilson's younger brother, dictated a letter to the Native Welfare Officer in Kalgoorlie, to apply for an age pension on 23 November 1959. The District Officer replied on 8 June 1960: 'Norman Bilson is not 70 years of age as stated by Mrs Bennett and is not yet old enough for the Age Pension. He is engaged at pastoral work.'

Source: Box 12/6, Council for Aboriginal Rights (Vic.) Papers, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

Source: Box 12/6, Council for Aboriginal Rights (Vic.) Papers, MS 12913, State Libary of Victoria

People such as Norman Bilson who, as children, had no access to Australian education, depended on others to write their applications for social service benefits.

Source: Council for Aboriginal Rights, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

One of many letters written by Mary Bennett to assist Aboriginal people, often illiterate, in the almost impossible task of communicating with bureaucrats who were preventing Aboriginal access to social service benefits.

Source: Box 4, Council for Aboriginal Rights (Vic.) Papers, State Library of Victoria

Shirley Andrews explained that, despite the removal of most of the exclusions from the Social Services Act, Aboriginal people were still denied benefits.

Source: Smoke Signals, March 1961

'The Australian Aborigines: a summary of their situation in all states in 1962', prepared by Shirley Andrews, campaign organiser, Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement.

Source: Box 3/4, Council for Aboriginal Rights (Vic.), Papers, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

This leaflet was written to inform Aboriginal Australians of their entitlements to social service benefits and how to access them. No government explanation existed at the time.

Source: Council for Aboriginal Rights, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

An article by Barry Christophers about discrimination against Aborigines in the Tuberculosis Act 1948.

Source: Smoke Signals, January 1964

Faith Bandler wrote this letter protesting the discriminatory determination under the Tuberculosis Act 1948 that denied the Tuberculosis Allowance to Aborigines.

Source: Australian Medical Association Papers, Canberra

The Director-General of Health supports the proposal to remove the racially discriminatory clauses in the determination on the Tuberculosis Allowance made under the Tuberculosis Act 1948.

Source: Australian Medical Association papers, Canberra

This leaflet produced by the Equal Wages for Aborigines committee shows Aboriginal workers marching in Darwin on May Day 1964.

Source: Box 28, Folder 8, Barry Christophers papers, 1951–1981, MS7992, National Library of Australia, Canberra

The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) resolved to end wage discrimination at its 1963 Congress. Nine unions sponsored this leaflet encouraging people to protest to both Commonwealth and Northern Territory governments.

Source: Box 11, Folder 8, Council for Aboriginal Rights (Vic.) Papers, MS 12913, State Library of Victoria

The Aboriginal weekly wage of three pounds three shillings and three pence a week — about one fifth of the wage paid to other workers.

Source: Barry Christophers Papers, 1951–1981, MS7992/8, National Library of Australia, Canberra

This article is not signed but is most likely by Barry Christophers. It argues that from political, moral, scientific, legal, medical, Christian and trade union points of view Aboriginal workers should receive equal pay.

Source: Eric Wicks (ed), Smoke Signals, Victorian Aborigines Advancement League, April–June 1965, pp. 15 & 17

This leaflet was circulated following the Arbitration Commission's judgment in favour of equal wages, which could be deferred for three years. Readers were invited to contribute money to the campaign supporting the strikers.

Source: Box 175, Gordon Bryant Papers, MS8256/11, National Library of Australia

The North Australian Workers Union backed the argument for equal wages being paid to Aborigines immediately rather than in three years.

Source: Barry Christophers Papers, MS 7992/6/5 National Library of Australia, Canberra

This paper argues that money earned by Aboriginal Queenslanders is not accounted for in the official figures.

Source: Barry Christophers Papers, MS 7992/5/2, National Library of Australia, Canberra

The District Officer at Chillagoe asks Cairns and Mareeba district officers to limit a worker's access to his own earnings.

Source: Barry Christophers Papers, MS 7992, National Library of Australia, Canberra. Reproduced with permission of the Department of Communities, Queensland

This campaign, against the Queensland Trust Fund, asked people to close their Commonwealth Bank accounts in protest at this bank's management of the Queensland Trust Fund. This petition was placed in major Australian daily newspapers.

Source: Barry Christophers Papers, 1951–1981, MS7992/6/12, National Library of Australia

Source: Queensland Government Gazette, 23 April 1945

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