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Learn more about each key event and check answers for our 20-question Defining Moments in Australian History quiz.

a. 32 per cent was the unemployment level at the height of the Great Depression

Image: Men looking for work, 1930. National Library of Australia obj-141685124

d. Peter Lalor was the leader of the Eureka rebellion

Image: Swearing Allegiance to the Southern Cross, watercolour by Charles A Doudiet, 1 December 1854. Art Gallery of Ballarat

d. CSIRO scientists invented the technology at the heart of modern wi-fi

Image: John O’Sullivan, Terence Percival and Graham Daniels with the WLAN test equipment. National Museum of Australia

b. Queen Elizabeth II first visited Australia  in 1954

Image: William Dargie’s ‘Wattle painting’ of Queen Elizabeth II, 1954. National Museum of Australia

c. Orange is the closest town to the first discovery of payable gold in Australia

Image: ‘Prospectors’ by ST Gill. National Museum of Australia

c. 7000 was the highest number of convicts transported to Australia in a year

Image: Former convicts Tom ‘the dealer’ (of skins and hides), Davey Evans and Paddy Paternoster, 1898. State Library of Western Australia, 066034PD

a. Rum was the main form of exchange when Governor Macquarie arrived in Sydney in 1810

Image: The arrest of Governor Bligh, artist unknown, 1808, watercolour. State Library of New South Wales, IE3203670

b. Cane toads were introduced to control beetles in sugar cane crops

Image: A cane toad in Litchfield National Park Northern Territory. Photo: Matt Clancy

c. Dorothy Tangney and Dame Enid Lyons were the first women elected to Australian Parliament

Image: Parliament House, Canberra. Courtesy Thennicke via Wikimedia Commons

c. Merino sheep originated in Spain and were introduced to Australia in 1797

Image: Merino sheep. Courtesy Fir0002/Flagstaffotos via Wikimedia Commons

b. Trim was the name of Matthew Flinders’ cat

Image: Bronze statue of Matthew Flinders’ cat, Trim. National Museum of Australia

a. The Castle Hill Rebellion took place in New South Wales

Image: Convict uprising at Castle Hill 1804, unknown artist. National Library of Australia an5577479

b. The first steam railway line in Australia was in Melbourne

Image: Photograph of an ST Gill drawing of Flinders Street in 1854. State Library of Victoria H1076

c. The 1907 Harvester Judgement was a court ruling on minimum pay

Image: Postcard of Sunshine Harvester Works, Victoria, 1910. Artist unknown, Museums Victoria

c. Approximately 15,000 people died in Australia during the 1919 influenza pandemic

Image: Women wearing surgical masks during influenza epidemic, Brisbane 1919. John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland, negative number 108241

b. 91 per cent of people voted ‘yes’ in the 1967 Indigenous referendum

Image: FCAATSI delegation canvassing parliamentarians, April 1967. Photographer unknown. National Archives of Australia: A1200, L62232

a. The 2009 Black Saturday bushfires were in Victoria

Image: The Kinglake National Park after the Black Saturday bushfires, 2009. CSIRO

c.  In 1972 the Conciliation and Arbitration Commission granted equal pay for men and women

Image: Labour Day demonstrations, Sydney, 1950s–60s. Noel Butlin Archives Centre/Australian National University Archives

c. The first refugees from Vietnam arrived by boat in Darwin

Image: Vietnamese refugees arriving in Darwin Harbour. Northern Territory Archives Service

a. Edwin Flack, Australia’s first Olympian, won gold in athletics

Image: Edwin Flack. Wikimedia Commons

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