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Learn more about each key event and check answers for our 25-question 19th-century Australian history quiz.

C. The primary purpose of Lieutenant James Cook’s first voyage to the South Pacific was to observe the planet Venus

Image: French marble portrait bust of Captain Jacques Cook was made in about 1788. National Museum of Australia

B. The First Fleet landed at Botany Bay

Image: Captain Arthur Phillip, by Francis Wheatley, 1786, oil painting, 30 x 25 cm. Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales ML 124

A. Whaling was the first commercially viable industry to develop in Australia

Image: South Sea Whalers Boiling Blubber. Boats Preparing to Get a Whale Alongside, by Oswald W Brierly, 1876, watercolour, 55 x 97 cm. State Library of New South Wales a128893

C. Merino sheep originated from Spain

Image: Merino sheep. Photo: Fir0002/Flagstaffotos via Wikimedia Commons

B. Matthew Flinders’ cat was named Trim

Image: Bronze statue of Matthew Flinders’ cat, Trim. National Museum of Australia

D. The Castle Hill Rebellion took place in New South Wales

Image: Convict Uprising at Castle Hill 1804, unknown artist. National Library of Australia an5577479

A. The Rum Rebellion deposed Governor Bligh

Image: The Arrest of Governor Bligh, 1808, unknown artist, watercolour, 23 x 37 cm. State Library of New South Wales IE3203670

C. The first Australian currency was nicknamed the holey dollar

Image: 1813 holey dollar. National Museum of Australia

C. Gregory Blaxland, William Wentworth and William Lawson crossed the Blue Mountains to look for agricultural land

Image: Victoria Pass, Blue Mountains, by Eliza Thurston, 1861, watercolour, 65 x 74 cm. National Museum of Australia

A. Bathurst was the first town in Australia to be established inland, away from the coast

Image: Governor Lachlan Macquarie, 1819, artist unknown, watercolour, 8 x 7 cm. State Library of New South Wales MIN236

D. When Governor Macquarie arrived in Sydney in 1810 he discovered that the colony’s main form of exchange was rum

Image: Bank of New South Wales, Head Office, 1822–53. State Library of NSW, Government Printing Office 1–17946

C. The founding governor of Western Australia was Captain James Stirling

Image: The Foundation of Perth 1829, by George Pitt Morison, 1929. Art Gallery Western Australia 1977/OP17

A. The Black Line was a coordinated action by Van Diemen’s Land colonists to force the Aboriginal population from their lands

Image: Governor Arthur’s Proclamation to the Aborigines, artist unknown, 1828, oil on wood panel, 36 x 23 cm. National Library of Australia obj-138420046

A. The name of the botanist and natural scientist whose third expedition to northern Australia was lost in 1848 was Ludwig Leichhardt

Image: Portrait of Ludwig Leichhardt, artist unknown, 1850, hand-coloured lithograph, 32 x 25 cm. National Library of Australia obj-136518437

B. New Zealand became a separate colony from New South Wales in 1841

Image: The Missionary Settlement Rangihoua on the North Side of the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, artist unknown, 1832, oil on wood panel, 23 x 31 cm. National Library of Australia obj-134112722

C. The district of Port Philip became Victoria in 1851

Image: Map of Port Phillip District, about 1844–1863, by Charles Norton. State Library of Victoria H88.21/96

B. Australia’s first university was founded in Sydney

Image: Sydney University Main Building and Great Hall from City Road entrance. Sydney University Archives G3_224_0943

B. Australia’s first steam railway line was in Melbourne

Image: Australia Post’s 150th anniversary of railways stamp, issued in 2004. Image reproduced with permission of the Australian Postal Corporation 2004. Illustrator: Ned Culic. National Museum of Australia

B. The leader of the Eureka rebellion was Peter Lalor

Image: Eureka Stockade Riot, by JB Henderson, 1854, watercolour, 17 x 23 cm. State Library of NSW a928052

C. In the United States the ‘Australian ballot’ is the common name for the secret ballot system of voting developed in Australia in 1856

Image: Justice Henry Samuel Chapman, by Frederick Alexander Dunn, 1867, photographic print, 11 x 7 cm. State Library of Victoria H29509

B. The first game of Australian Rules football was played between Scotch College (later Melbourne Grammar) and St Kilda Grammar 1858

Image: A Football Match: Carlton v Melbourne, The Australasian Sketcher, 18 June 1881. State Library of Victoria A/S18/06/81/193

C. 13 European wild rabbits were imported into Australia in 1859

Image: Lorry-load of Rabbits, Braidwood, New South Wales, early 20th century, photograph on material paper, 14 x 8 cm. National Museum of Australia

A. The first stock exchange in Australia was in Melbourne

Image: The New Melbourne Stock Exchange, 1892. State Library of Victoria H2001.60/44

C. The winner of the first Melbourne Cup was Archer

Image: Archer, with Jockey, J Cutts, in EL de Mestre’s Colours, by Frederick Woodhouse Snr, 1862, oil painting, dimensions unknown. Australian Dictionary of Biography

A. In 1867, Prince Alfred the first British royal to visit Australia was almost assassinated.

Image: HRH Prince Alfred, KG, Duke of Edinburgh, by HS Sadd, 1868. National Library of Australia obj-135977024

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