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Featured moments

Defining Moments in Australian History

Warning: This website includes images and names of deceased people that may cause sadness or distress to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

School years

The 'featured moments' below provide a wealth of information about the events in question.

This page sorts the featured moments into school years. You can also sort by curriculum subject, topic or place.

    Year 2

    First railway line
    First railway line
    1854: Australia’s first railway line opens in Victoria
    Lawrence Hargrave working on a box kite
    Hargrave’s first flight
    1894: Lawrence Hargrave lifts off in his box-kite at Stanwell Park
    1920: Qantas established
    Qantas
    1920: Qantas established
    An elderly couple and two young women or girls sit around a radio the size of a bar fridge
    Start of the ABC
    1932: Formation of the Australian Broadcasting Commission
    1948: Holden launch
    Holden launch
    1948: Australia’s first locally made car, the Holden 48-215, launched

    Year 3

    1913: Foundation of Canberra
    Founding of Canberra
    1913: Foundation of Canberra as the national capital

    Year 4


    Boomerang in Australia
    about 20,000 years ago: Earliest evidence of the boomerang in Australia
    Etching showing a 17th-century vessel just off the coast.
    First contact
    1606: Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon becomes first European to map parts of the Australian coast
    1616: Dutch navigator Dirk Hartog lands on the island off western Australia that now bears his name
    Dirk Hartog lands off WA
    1616: Dutch navigator Dirk Hartog lands on the island off Western Australia that now bears his name
    Timber sailing vessel at sea with lower sails catching the wind. The Dutch flag sails from the bowsprit.
    Wreck of the Batavia
    1629: Dutch vessel Batavia wrecks off western Australia resulting in mass murder and the marooning of two men on the mainland
    About 1700: Trade with the Makasar
    Trade with the Makasar
    about 1700: Beginning of trade links between Aboriginal people of northern Australia and Makasar from Sulawesi
    White bust of Cook against a blue background. Cook is shirtless and hatless with curled hair, in the manner of an ancient Greek hero
    Cook claims Australia
    1770: Lieutenant James Cook claims east coast of Australia for Britain
    1788: Convict cargo
    Convict cargo
    1788: Captain Arthur Phillip establishes a convict settlement at Sydney Cove
    1792: Pemulwuy
    Pemulwuy
    1792: Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy leads resistance against Sydney colonists
    1813: Blue Mountains
    Blue Mountains
    1813: Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth cross the Blue Mountains
    : lithograph showing a creek and a tree in the foreground with horse-drawn wagons. In the background is a small town made up of one- or two-storey white buildings
    Founding of Bathurst
    1815: Governor Macquarie establishes Bathurst – first inland European settlement
    two men in yellow outfits stand writing at a table immediately outside a cottage
    Convict transportation peaks
    1833: Convict transportation to Australia peaks when nearly 7000 people arrive in one year
    First national park thumbnail
    First national park
    1879: Australia’s first national park created – (now Royal) National Park, Sydney
    colour photo of ochre-coloured landscape at sunset or sunrise with a variety of outcrops
    Mungo Lady
    1968: Remains of Mungo Lady found

    Year 5

    1788: Convict cargo
    Convict cargo
    1788: Captain Arthur Phillip establishes a convict settlement at Sydney Cove
    black and white electron microscope image showing five granulated black and white oval shapes on a white background. There is an hour-glass figure discernible in the centre of each shape.
    Smallpox epidemic
    1789: Smallpox breaks out in Sydney
    Two men with slaughtered whales on shoreline; one standing on one whale with harpoon spear in hand
    Start of whaling
    1791: Establishment of the whaling industry in Sydney
    1792: Pemulwuy
    Pemulwuy
    1792: Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy leads resistance against Sydney colonists
    merino sheep
    Merino sheep introduced
    1797: Introduction of the merino sheep to Australia
    Portrait of Matthew Flinders
    Flinders maps Australia
    1801–03: Matthew Flinders circumnavigates continent, which he names ‘Australia’
    Convict uprising at Castle Hill 1804
    Castle Hill Rebellion
    1804: Convict uprising put down by New South Wales Corps
    crude colour picture of Bligh being dragged from under a bed by a soldier with a rifle while another soldier and an officer look on.
    Rum Rebellion
    1808: The Rum Rebellion, in which Governor William Bligh is deposed by the New South Wales Corps
    1813: Blue Mountains
    Blue Mountains
    1813: Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth cross the Blue Mountains
    : lithograph showing a creek and a tree in the foreground with horse-drawn wagons. In the background is a small town made up of one- or two-storey white buildings
    Founding of Bathurst
    1815: Governor Macquarie establishes Bathurst – first inland European settlement

    First free press
    1824: Ex-convict Andrew Bent founds first free press in the Australian colonies

    The Black Line
    1830: The ‘Black Line’ – settler force attempts to corral Aboriginal people on the Tasman Peninsula
    two men in yellow outfits stand writing at a table immediately outside a cottage
    Convict transportation peaks
    1833: Convict transportation to Australia peaks when nearly 7000 people arrive in one year

    Bourke Church Act
    1836: Governor Richard Bourke funds Protestant and Catholic churches in New South Wales on equal basis
    1851: Gold rushes
    Gold rushes
    1851: Gold rushes in New South Wales and Victoria begin
    oil painting showing middle-aged man seated, wearing elaborate military uniform with a plumed hat resting by his right arm
    Separation of NSW and VIC
    1851: The separation of the colony of Victoria from New South Wales
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    1852: Gundagai flood - the deadliest in Australian history
    First railway line
    First railway line
    1854: Australia’s first railway line opens in Victoria
    1854: Rebellion of goldminers at the Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, Victoria
    Eureka Stockade
    1854: Rebellion of goldminers at Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, Victoria
    1859: Introduction of rabbits
    Rabbits introduced
    1859: Rabbits successfully introduced into Australia
    Mound of dead rats
    Bubonic plague
    1900: Bubonic plague arrives in Australia
    Book cover - Spanish influenza All About It Professor Wade Oliver, Copyright holder unknown.
    Influenza pandemic
    1919: Influenza pandemic reaches Australia
    1935: Cane toads introduced into Australia to control pest beetles in Queensland’s sugar cane crops
    Cane toads
    1935: Cane toads introduced into Australia to control pest beetles in Queensland’s sugar cane crops
    a black and white portrait photo of a white-haired man with a white moustache
    William Cooper protests
    1936: Yorta Yorta elder William Cooper founds the Australian Aborigines' League
    Extinction of Thylacine
    Extinction of thylacine
    1936: Tasmania’s thylacine becomes extinct
    Interior black and white photo of a late middle-aged man in white coat administering injection to the upper arm of a boy, about five
    Polio vaccine in Australia
    1956: Introduction of polio vaccine ends epidemic in Australia
    A painting featuring a central anthropomorphic image surrounded by varying sizes of concentric circles. Background constructed by means of concentric bands of dotted lines filling space between circles. One straight band at extreme narrow end. Wavy line the opposing end.
    Papunya Tula
    1972: Establishment of Papunya Tula Artists cooperative
    1974: Cyclone Tracy
    Cyclone Tracy
    1974: Cyclone Tracy hits Darwin

    Year 6

    Daguerreotype of white-haired, bearded man in dark suit.
    Secret ballot introduced
    1856: Secret ballot introduced and all adult men given the vote
    1868: Convict transportation
    Convict transportation
    1868: Convict transportation to Australia ends
    studio photo portrait of head and shoulders of middle aged man
    Australian Natives’ Association
    1871: Australian Natives’ Association formed
    1885: Victoria Employers’ Union founded
    Victorian Employers’ Union
    1885: Victorian Employers’ Union formed
    studio photographic portrait of older man, with white hair and long white beard
    Tenterfield Oration
    1889: Henry Parkes gives his Tenterfield Oration
    Lawrence Hargrave working on a box kite
    Hargrave’s first flight
    1894: Lawrence Hargrave lifts off in his box-kite at Stanwell Park
    this 28mm-high badge has the words ‘Australia for the Australians’ stamped on the rim and the words ‘White Australia’ stamped on silver-painted representation of the Australian continent in the middle.
    White Australia policy
    1901: White Australia policy enshrined in law
    Federation
    Federation
    1901: Inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia
    1902: Commonwealth Franchise Act gives women the vote in federal elections
    Franchise Act
    1902: Commonwealth Franchise Act gives women the vote in federal elections
    Black and white photo showing Morant from the waist up. He is in uniform with bandolier and slouch hat, face turned to his right
    Breaker Morant executed
    1902: British execute horseman, soldier and poet Harry ‘Breaker’ Morant
    Steam ship in front of an ice shelf
    Mawson in the Antarctic
    1911: Douglas Mawson leads Australasian expedition to Antarctica
    1913: Foundation of Canberra
    Founding of Canberra
    1913: Foundation of Canberra as the national capital
    Trans-Australian Railway
    Trans-Australian Railway
    1917: Completion of line linking Western Australia and the eastern states
    1920: Qantas established
    Qantas
    1920: Qantas established
    Portrait of a woman
    Edith Cowan
    1921: Edith Cowan elected to parliament
    Photo taken from the north shore showing the two sides of the arch under construction. They have yet to meet. Large cranes are perched on top of each end of the spans. A ferry can be seen in the foreground.
    Harbour Bridge opens
    1932: Opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge
    1945: Penicillin
    Penicillin
    1945: Florey, Fleming and Chain win Nobel Prize for developing penicillin
    The flag flying in the wind
    Australian flag defined
    1954: Flags Act becomes law, defining the official flag of Australia
    classic mushroom cloud of a nuclear explosion in the background, with grassy scrub in foreground
    Maralinga
    1956: First nuclear weapons test by British at Maralinga
    : three men in suits standing beside a table on which sit a collection of cumbersome electronic equipment.
    Wi-fi
    1996: CSIRO patents technology, permitting the development of stable wi-fi

    Year 7

    at least 52,000 years ago: Evidence of first peoples
    Evidence of first peoples
    at least 65,000 years ago: Archaeological evidence of first peoples on the Australian continent

    Boomerang in Australia
    about 20,000 years ago: Earliest evidence of the boomerang in Australia

    First free press
    1824: Ex-convict Andrew Bent founds first free press in the Australian colonies

    Bourke Church Act
    1836: Governor Richard Bourke funds Protestant and Catholic churches in New South Wales on equal basis
    oil painting showing middle-aged man seated, wearing elaborate military uniform with a plumed hat resting by his right arm
    Separation of NSW and VIC
    1851: The separation of the colony of Victoria from New South Wales
    A colour-tinted drawing of a parade watched by crowds of people.
    Eight-hour day
    1856: Melbourne building workers win an eight-hour day
    An ornate gothic building seven or eight storeys high with lower buildings on either side
    First stock exchange
    1859: Establishment of Australia’s first stock exchange
    Three men tilling the soil in large paddox while two others look on from other side of a fence. Saplings have been planted in the paddock in long rows.
    Murray River irrigation
    1887: Chaffey Brothers introduce irrigation on Murray River
    studio photographic portrait of older man, with white hair and long white beard
    Tenterfield Oration
    1889: Henry Parkes gives his Tenterfield Oration
    Federation
    Federation
    1901: Inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia
    Henry Bourne Higgins
    Harvester Judgement
    1907: Justice HB Higgins hands down ‘Harvester Judgement’
    Conscription referendums
    Conscription referendums
    1916–17: Conscription for military service overseas defeated in two referendums
    The seven people named stand in front of a wood-panelled wall in what looks like Old Parliament House.
    Indigenous referendum
    1967: Indigenous referendum
    colour photo of ochre-coloured landscape at sunset or sunrise with a variety of outcrops
    Mungo Lady
    1968: Remains of Mungo Lady found
    Equal pay for women
    Equal pay for women
    1972: Conciliation and Arbitration Commission grants equal pay for men and women
    Young people squatting or standing on a dirt road holding the Australian flag and various banners.
    Franklin Dam and the Greens
    1982: Protests against Franklin Dam in Tasmania lead to formation of the Greens

    Year 8

    about 12,000 years ago: Separation of Tasmania
    Separation of Tasmania
    about 12,000 years ago: Sea level rises, separating Tasmania from the mainland
    about 5000 years ago: Arrival of the dingo, Australia's first domesticated species
    Arrival of the dingo
    about 5000 years ago: Arrival of the dingo, Australia's first domesticated species

    The Black Line
    1830: The ‘Black Line’ – settler force attempts to corral Aboriginal people on the Tasman Peninsula
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    1852: Gundagai flood - the deadliest in Australian history
    Daguerreotype of white-haired, bearded man in dark suit.
    Secret ballot introduced
    1856: Secret ballot introduced and all adult men given the vote
    Young man or boy standing in front of tall stands of sugar cane. He is holding a piece of sugar cane. His face is expressionless
    Islander labourers
    1863: South Sea Islanders brought to Queensland as indentured labourers
    Portrait of Tom Roberts
    9 by 5 exhibition
    1889: 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition
    1902: Commonwealth Franchise Act gives women the vote in federal elections
    Franchise Act
    1902: Commonwealth Franchise Act gives women the vote in federal elections
    Black and white photo showing Morant from the waist up. He is in uniform with bandolier and slouch hat, face turned to his right
    Breaker Morant executed
    1902: British execute horseman, soldier and poet Harry ‘Breaker’ Morant
    1913: Foundation of Canberra
    Founding of Canberra
    1913: Foundation of Canberra as the national capital
    1915: Aborigines Protection Act
    Aborigines Protection Act
    1915: NSW Government gains power to remove Aboriginal children from their families
    Portrait of a woman
    Edith Cowan
    1921: Edith Cowan elected to parliament
    a black and white portrait photo of a white-haired man with a white moustache
    William Cooper protests
    1936: Yorta Yorta elder William Cooper founds the Australian Aborigines' League
    1938: Day of Mourning
    Day of Mourning
    1938: Sesquicentenary and Aboriginal Day of Mourning
    interior photo of tightly packed group of about 70 men in their 50s and 60s smiling at the camera.
    Dunera Boys
    1940: HMT Dunera arrives in Australia
    Post-war immigration drive
    Postwar immigration drive
    1945: Australian Government announces postwar immigration drive
    1949: Nationality and Citizenship Act
    Citizenship Act
    1949: Nationality and Citizenship Act creates Australian citizenship
    classic mushroom cloud of a nuclear explosion in the background, with grassy scrub in foreground
    Maralinga
    1956: First nuclear weapons test by British at Maralinga
    1960: Australian Government lifts restrictions on export of iron ore
    Iron ore exports
    1960: Australian Government lifts restrictions on export of iron ore
    Aboriginal man standing in front of tent holding up sign saying ‘We want land not handouts’. He is surrounded by a dozen or so other protesters.
    Aboriginal Land Rights Act
    1976: Australian Government passes Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act
    1984: Medicare system
    Medicare
    1984: Introduction of Medicare

    Sex Discrimination Act
    1984: Australian Parliament passes Sex Discrimination Act
    Port Hedland Immigration Reception and Processing Centre, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, June 2002.
    First detention centre
    1991: Port Hedland immigration detention centre opens
    3 June 1992: High Court Decision in Mabo Case recognises Native Title
    Mabo decision
    1992: High Court decision in Mabo case recognises native title

    Port Arthur massacre
    1996: Port Arthur massacre leads to tighter gun laws
    Vaile and Zoellick pose for the cameras shaking hands and smiling. Behind them are a series of Australian and US flags along with a man and a woman smiling and clapping
    US free trade agreement
    2004: US free trade agreement

    Year 9

    About 1700: Trade with the Makasar
    Trade with the Makasar
    about 1700: Beginning of trade links between Aboriginal people of northern Australia and Makasar from Sulawesi
    White bust of Cook against a blue background. Cook is shirtless and hatless with curled hair, in the manner of an ancient Greek hero
    Cook claims Australia
    1770: Lieutenant James Cook claims east coast of Australia for Britain
    1788: Convict cargo
    Convict cargo
    1788: Captain Arthur Phillip establishes a convict settlement at Sydney Cove
    black and white electron microscope image showing five granulated black and white oval shapes on a white background. There is an hour-glass figure discernible in the centre of each shape.
    Smallpox epidemic
    1789: Smallpox breaks out in Sydney
    Two men with slaughtered whales on shoreline; one standing on one whale with harpoon spear in hand
    Start of whaling
    1791: Establishment of the whaling industry in Sydney
    1792: Pemulwuy
    Pemulwuy
    1792: Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy leads resistance against Sydney colonists
    merino sheep
    Merino sheep introduced
    1797: Introduction of the merino sheep to Australia
    Portrait of Matthew Flinders
    Flinders maps Australia
    1801–03: Matthew Flinders circumnavigates continent, which he names ‘Australia’
    Convict uprising at Castle Hill 1804
    Castle Hill Rebellion
    1804: Convict uprising put down by New South Wales Corps
    crude colour picture of Bligh being dragged from under a bed by a soldier with a rifle while another soldier and an officer look on.
    Rum Rebellion
    1808: The Rum Rebellion, in which Governor William Bligh is deposed by the New South Wales Corps
    Stamp shows main in top hat boarding ship with Sydney town in the background. Two sailors are waiting. Text reads Birth of the Post office 1809
    First post office
    1809: Convict Isaac Nichols appointed as Australia’s first postmaster
    studio photo of silver coin with missing centre. The original Spanish imprinting in Latin is visible around the outside rim, while the words five shillings have been imprinted around the inside rim
    Holey dollar
    1814: Introduction of Australia’s first coin, the holey dollar
    : lithograph showing a creek and a tree in the foreground with horse-drawn wagons. In the background is a small town made up of one- or two-storey white buildings
    Founding of Bathurst
    1815: Governor Macquarie establishes Bathurst – first inland European settlement
    black and white drawing or lithograph of a two-storey building with arched façade and a smoking chimney. Adjoining it is a three-storey terrace with a shop at the bottom. There are no people visible.
    First bank in Australia
    1817: Governor Macquarie establishes the Bank of New South Wales

    The Black Line
    1830: The ‘Black Line’ – settler force attempts to corral Aboriginal people on the Tasman Peninsula
    Engraving of Victorian era scene in which an older woman sits at a table reading a book to a younger man
    'Quintus Servinton' published
    1831: Australia’s first novelist Henry Savery publishes Quintus Servinton
    two men in yellow outfits stand writing at a table immediately outside a cottage
    Convict transportation peaks
    1833: Convict transportation to Australia peaks when nearly 7000 people arrive in one year
    Australian Aborigines Slaughtered by Convicts, by Phiz, The Book of Remarkable Trials, 1840; Chronicles of Crime V. II, 1841
    Myall Creek massacre
    1838: Myall Creek massacre, New South Wales
    1851: Gold rushes
    Gold rushes
    1851: Gold rushes in New South Wales and Victoria begin
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    1852: Gundagai flood - the deadliest in Australian history
    1854: Rebellion of goldminers at the Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, Victoria
    Eureka Stockade
    1854: Rebellion of goldminers at Eureka Stockade, Ballarat, Victoria
    First railway line
    First railway line
    1854: Australia’s first railway line opens in Victoria
    A colour-tinted drawing of a parade watched by crowds of people.
    Eight-hour day
    1856: Melbourne building workers win an eight-hour day
    An ornate gothic building seven or eight storeys high with lower buildings on either side
    First stock exchange
    1859: Establishment of Australia’s first stock exchange
    1868: Convict transportation
    Convict transportation
    1868: Convict transportation to Australia ends
    studio photo portrait of head and shoulders of middle aged man
    Australian Natives’ Association
    1871: Australian Natives’ Association formed
    A black and white photo taken in the 1920s of a man who has climbed up to the top of a pole
    Overland telegraph
    1872: Completion of the Overland Telegraph from Darwin to Port Augusta, South Australia
    sepia-toned photograph of a large three-storey white building
    Free education introduced
    1872: Free, compulsory and secular education introduced in Victoria
    1880: The Bulletin
    The Bulletin
    1880: The Bulletin established
    View of Broken Hill, 1888–91
    Founding of BHP
    1885: BHP begins mining silver, lead and zinc at Broken Hill in New South Wales
    Three men tilling the soil in large paddox while two others look on from other side of a fence. Saplings have been planted in the paddock in long rows.
    Murray River irrigation
    1887: Chaffey Brothers introduce irrigation on Murray River
    1890–91: Depression and strikes; formation of the Labor Party
    ALP forms
    1890–91: Depression and strikes; formation of the Labor Party
    1894: Women's suffrage
    Women’s suffrage
    1894: Legislation introducing women’s suffrage, South Australia
    Mound of dead rats
    Bubonic plague
    1900: Bubonic plague arrives in Australia
    this 28mm-high badge has the words ‘Australia for the Australians’ stamped on the rim and the words ‘White Australia’ stamped on silver-painted representation of the Australian continent in the middle.
    White Australia policy
    1901: White Australia policy enshrined in law
    cover shows illustration of a woman on a horseback charging towards flock of sheep cracking a whip. The title is included but not the author
    'My Brilliant Career'
    1901: Miles Franklin publishes 'My Brilliant Career'
    1902: Commonwealth Franchise Act gives women the vote in federal elections
    Franchise Act
    1902: Commonwealth Franchise Act gives women the vote in federal elections
    Black and white photo showing Morant from the waist up. He is in uniform with bandolier and slouch hat, face turned to his right
    Breaker Morant executed
    1902: British execute horseman, soldier and poet Harry ‘Breaker’ Morant

    ‘Federation’ wheat
    1903: William Farrer begins distribution of ‘Federation’ wheat
    1906: Papua New Guinea
    Papua New Guinea
    1906: Australia takes control of Papua as an ‘external territory’
    cropped image of poster - ‘The Story of the Kelly Gang, commencing Saturday Nov 26, Anderson’s Olympia Theatre’
    World's first feature film
    1906: World’s first feature-length film The Story of the Kelly Gang produced in Victoria
    Henry Bourne Higgins
    Harvester Judgement
    1907: Justice HB Higgins hands down ‘Harvester Judgement’
    1908: Age and invalid pension
    Age and invalid pensions
    1908: Legislation introducing national age and invalid pensions
    Steam ship in front of an ice shelf
    Mawson in the Antarctic
    1911: Douglas Mawson leads Australasian expedition to Antarctica
    Maternity leave introduced
    Maternity allowance introduced
    1912: Australian Government introduces a maternity allowance
    Royal Australian Navy
    Royal Australian Navy
    1913: The newly created 'fleet unit' sails into Sydney Harbour
    1915: Australian troops land at Gallipoli
    Gallipoli landing
    1915: Australian troops land at Gallipolli
    Conscription referendums
    Conscription referendums
    1916–17: Conscription for military service overseas defeated in two referendums
    1916: Soldier settlement
    Soldier settlement
    1916: Federal–state agreement for soldier settlement
    Trans-Australian Railway
    Trans-Australian Railway
    1917: Completion of line linking Western Australia and the eastern states
    Book cover - Spanish influenza All About It Professor Wade Oliver, Copyright holder unknown.
    Influenza pandemic
    1919: Influenza pandemic reaches Australia
    Black and white photo of men and women
    Country Party
    1920: Country Party founded
    Portrait of a woman
    Edith Cowan
    1921: Edith Cowan elected to parliament
    Photo taken from the north shore showing the two sides of the arch under construction. They have yet to meet. Large cranes are perched on top of each end of the spans. A ferry can be seen in the foreground.
    Harbour Bridge opens
    1932: Opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge
    Four men walking towards the camera dressed in shabby clothes. Most are carrying swags and bill cans
    Great Depression
    1932: Height of the Great Depression, with 32 per cent unemployment
    a black and white portrait photo of a white-haired man with a white moustache
    William Cooper protests
    1936: Yorta Yorta elder William Cooper founds the Australian Aborigines' League
    interior photo of tightly packed group of about 70 men in their 50s and 60s smiling at the camera.
    Dunera Boys
    1940: HMT Dunera arrives in Australia
    Two well-dressed women entering Parliament House in Canberra.
    First women in Parliament
    1943: First women elected to Australian Parliament
    1944: Formation of Liberal Party of Australia
    Liberal party forms
    1944: Formation of Liberal Party of Australia
    Photo taken from a second-storey window showing hundreds of men proceeding down a main street.
    Unemployment insurance
    1945: National introduction of sickness and unemployment benefits
    1948: Holden launch
    Holden launch
    1948: Australia’s first locally made car, the Holden 48-215, launched
    The flag flying in the wind
    Australian flag defined
    1954: Flags Act becomes law, defining the official flag of Australia
    Interior black and white photo of a late middle-aged man in white coat administering injection to the upper arm of a boy, about five
    Polio vaccine in Australia
    1956: Introduction of polio vaccine ends epidemic in Australia
    1960: Australian Government lifts restrictions on export of iron ore
    Iron ore exports
    1960: Australian Government lifts restrictions on export of iron ore
    Prince Phillip speaking at a lectern with Holt and Menzies seated. Other dignitaries and their wives are also present. Behind them is the main door of the Mint.
    Decimal currency
    1966: Switch to decimal currency
    four young men sit in front of a beach umbrella at night holding up signs
    Aboriginal Tent Embassy
    1972: Aboriginal Tent Embassy established in front of Parliament House, Canberra
    A painting featuring a central anthropomorphic image surrounded by varying sizes of concentric circles. Background constructed by means of concentric bands of dotted lines filling space between circles. One straight band at extreme narrow end. Wavy line the opposing end.
    Papunya Tula
    1972: Establishment of Papunya Tula Artists cooperative
    Black and white photo of balding, middle-aged man crouches by canvas spread on the floor. He has a cigarette in his mouth, a paint can in one hand. His other hand seems to be covered in paint. He is frowning intently at the canvas, which has a few splotches of dark paint on it.
    Blue Poles
    1973: National Gallery of Australia buys Blue Poles for $1.3 million
    photo portrait taken outside of an elderly man in coat and scarf wearing a beret
    White wins Nobel Prize
    1973: Patrick White wins Nobel Prize
    a black and white photo of four people inside an office. There is a bookcase behind them and the man seated is holding a Macquarie Dictionary
    'Macquarie Dictionary'
    1981: Publication of the Macquarie Dictionary recognises the distinctive identity of Australian English
    1983: Australian dollar floated
    Australian dollar floated
    1983: Floating of the Australian dollar
    : three men in suits standing beside a table on which sit a collection of cumbersome electronic equipment.
    Wi-fi
    1996: CSIRO patents technology, permitting the development of stable wi-fi
    Vaile and Zoellick pose for the cameras shaking hands and smiling. Behind them are a series of Australian and US flags along with a man and a woman smiling and clapping
    US free trade agreement
    2004: US free trade agreement

    Year 10

    Stamp shows main in top hat boarding ship with Sydney town in the background. Two sailors are waiting. Text reads Birth of the Post office 1809
    First post office
    1809: Convict Isaac Nichols appointed as Australia’s first postmaster
    studio photo of silver coin with missing centre. The original Spanish imprinting in Latin is visible around the outside rim, while the words five shillings have been imprinted around the inside rim
    Holey dollar
    1814: Introduction of Australia’s first coin, the holey dollar
    black and white drawing or lithograph of a two-storey building with arched façade and a smoking chimney. Adjoining it is a three-storey terrace with a shop at the bottom. There are no people visible.
    First bank in Australia
    1817: Governor Macquarie establishes the Bank of New South Wales
    1851: Gold rushes
    Gold rushes
    1851: Gold rushes in New South Wales and Victoria begin
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    Gundagai flood of 1852
    1852: Gundagai flood - the deadliest in Australian history
    1859: Introduction of rabbits
    Rabbits introduced
    1859: Rabbits successfully introduced into Australia
    Young man or boy standing in front of tall stands of sugar cane. He is holding a piece of sugar cane. His face is expressionless
    Islander labourers
    1863: South Sea Islanders brought to Queensland as indentured labourers
    studio photo portrait of head and shoulders of middle aged man
    Australian Natives’ Association
    1871: Australian Natives’ Association formed
    First national park thumbnail
    First national park
    1879: Australia’s first national park created – (now Royal) National Park, Sydney
    Three men tilling the soil in large paddox while two others look on from other side of a fence. Saplings have been planted in the paddock in long rows.
    Murray River irrigation
    1887: Chaffey Brothers introduce irrigation on Murray River

    First Australian Olympian
    1896: Edwin Flack becomes Australia’s first Olympian
    man in red singlet with Yamaha printed on it paddles a surf ski.
    First lifesaving club
    1907: Australia’s first lifesaving club established at Bondi, Sydney
    1908: Age and invalid pension
    Age and invalid pensions
    1908: Legislation introducing national age and invalid pensions
    Maternity leave introduced
    Maternity allowance introduced
    1912: Australian Government introduces a maternity allowance
    1915: Aborigines Protection Act
    Aborigines Protection Act
    1915: NSW Government gains power to remove Aboriginal children from their families
    Aboriginal man, smiling, stands facing the camera, a hat set at jaunty angle on his head.
    Formation of the AAPA
    1924: Australian Aboriginal Progressive Association formed
    Three performers on stage. Two of them, a man and a woman in traditional folk costume, strike balletic poses while another performer reads a book in a window above their heads
    First ballet
    1931: First performance of the First Australian Ballet
    An elderly couple and two young women or girls sit around a radio the size of a bar fridge
    Start of the ABC
    1932: Formation of the Australian Broadcasting Commission
    Four men walking towards the camera dressed in shabby clothes. Most are carrying swags and bill cans
    Great Depression
    1932: Height of the Great Depression, with 32 per cent unemployment
    Extinction of Thylacine
    Extinction of thylacine
    1936: Tasmania’s thylacine becomes extinct
    1938: Day of Mourning
    Day of Mourning
    1938: Sesquicentenary and Aboriginal Day of Mourning
    interior photo of tightly packed group of about 70 men in their 50s and 60s smiling at the camera.
    Dunera Boys
    1940: HMT Dunera arrives in Australia
    Kokoda Trail
    Kokoda Trail
    1942: Japanese bomb Darwin but are halted on Kokoda Trail
    cropped studio black and white photo of Curtin.  He is wearing a dark suit and glasses
    Curtin brings home troops
    1942: Australian troops return to fight in the Pacific
    1942: Japanese Imperial Army invades Singapore
    Fall of Singapore
    1942: Japanese Imperial Army invades Singapore

    Founding of the UN
    1945: Australia plays a leading role in founding United Nations
    Post-war immigration drive
    Postwar immigration drive
    1945: Australian Government announces postwar immigration drive
    Photo taken from a second-storey window showing hundreds of men proceeding down a main street.
    Unemployment insurance
    1945: National introduction of sickness and unemployment benefits
    Election of Menzies Government
    Election of Menzies
    1949: Election of the Menzies government – the longest serving in Australian history
    1949: Nationality and Citizenship Act
    Citizenship Act
    1949: Nationality and Citizenship Act creates Australian citizenship
    A short, smiling man in his fifties or sixties in Army uniform inspects Australian soldiers standing at attention
    Korean War
    1950–53: Korean War
    1951: Australia signs ANZUS Treaty with New Zealand and the United States
    ANZUS Treaty
    1951: Australia signs ANZUS Treaty with New Zealand and the United States
    Photo taken at night showing distressed woman flanked by two men in suits holding her arms
    Petrov Affair
    1954: Soviet diplomat Vladimir Petrov defects
    1955: Split within ALP
    ALP split
    1955: Split within Australian Labor Party; formation of the Democratic Labor Party
    1956: Television introduced in time for Australia’s first Olympic Games, Melbourne
    TV and Melbourne Olympics
    1956: Television introduced in time for Australia’s first Olympic Games, Melbourne
    classic mushroom cloud of a nuclear explosion in the background, with grassy scrub in foreground
    Maralinga
    1956: First nuclear weapons test by British at Maralinga
    Wave Hill walk-off
    Wave Hill Walk-Off
    1966: Gurindji strike (or Wave Hill Walk-Off) led by Vincent Lingiari
    1966: White Australia policy dismantled
    White Australia policy ends
    1966: End of White Australia policy
    The seven people named stand in front of a wood-panelled wall in what looks like Old Parliament House.
    Indigenous referendum
    1967: Indigenous referendum
    a black and white photo in the 1970s of a protest
    Vietnam moratoriums
    1970: Moratoriums to protest Australian involvement in Vietnam War
    four young men sit in front of a beach umbrella at night holding up signs
    Aboriginal Tent Embassy
    1972: Aboriginal Tent Embassy established in front of Parliament House, Canberra
    Sydney Opera House opens
    Sydney Opera House
    1973: Sydney Opera House opens
    Wooden boat with refugees in Darwin harbour
    Vietnamese refugees
    1976: First arrival of Vietnamese refugees by boat
    Aboriginal man standing in front of tent holding up sign saying ‘We want land not handouts’. He is surrounded by a dozen or so other protesters.
    Aboriginal Land Rights Act
    1976: Australian Government passes Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act
    two men sitting in a radio studio in front of microphones. They are smiling and clearly in conversation. The present is wearing a top saying ‘We’re talking your language on 3EA’
    SBS established
    1978: Special Broadcasting Service established
    1978: First Gay Mardi Gras march, Sydney
    First gay Mardi Gras
    1978: First gay Mardi Gras march, Sydney
    Young people squatting or standing on a dirt road holding the Australian flag and various banners.
    Franklin Dam and the Greens
    1982: Protests against Franklin Dam in Tasmania lead to formation of the Greens
    A yacht and crew
    America’s Cup win
    1983: Australia II wins the America’s Cup
    Port Hedland Immigration Reception and Processing Centre, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, June 2002.
    First detention centre
    1991: Port Hedland immigration detention centre opens
    3 June 1992: High Court Decision in Mabo Case recognises Native Title
    Mabo decision
    1992: High Court decision in Mabo case recognises native title
    Crowd on bridge with flags
    Walk for reconciliation
    2000: Walk for Reconciliation across Sydney Harbour Bridge
    'Tampa affair'
    ‘Tampa affair’
    2001: Australian troops take control of Tampa carrying rescued asylum-seekers
    2008: National apology
    National Apology
    2008: National Apology to the Stolen Generations

    Black Saturday bushfires
    2009: ‘Black Saturday’ bushfires kill 173 people in Victoria
    Marriage equality
    Marriage equality
    2017: Marriage equality
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