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Gold rushes

Defining Moments in Australian History

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Gold rushes

1851: Gold rushes in New South Wales and Victoria begin


Studio photo of a game board with three pieces, an instruction manual and the box they came in. the box has a colourful illustration showing men holding a flag pointing at ships at sea. The pieces on the game board are ships and the board itself suggests that the game involves moving around an oval sea with an illustration of gold diggings in the centre.

The discovery of gold in the 1850s started a series of rushes that transformed the Australian colonies.

The first discoveries of payable gold were at Ophir in New South Wales and then at Ballarat and Bendigo Creek in Victoria.   

In 1851, gold-seekers from around the world began pouring into the colonies, changing the course of Australian history.

The gold rushes greatly expanded Australia’s population, boosted its economy, and led to the emergence of a new national identity.

More on the gold rushes

Geelong Advertiser, 14 October 1851:

There are, we should say, about a thousand cradles at work, within a mile of the Golden Point, at Ballarat. There are about fifty near the Black Hill, about a mile and a half distant, and at the Brown Hill Diggings there are about three or four hundred more; to say nothing of hundreds on the ground not yet set at work. Allowing five for each cradle, the population within a radius of five miles must be a population of about seven thousand men.

Victorian gold rushes film

Studio photo of a simple contraption made of timber. It appears to be essentially a box with a tray extending from one side, and a handle from the other. On the top surface of the box is a metal sheet punctuated with holes.
Gold mining cradle, National Museum of Australia. Photo: Jason McCarthy.

Discovery of gold in Australia

There had been multiple gold finds in New South Wales (Bathurst and Monaro), Tasmania and what would become Victoria prior to the ‘official’ discovery of the precious metal by Edward Hargraves near Orange in 1851.

In 1841 Reverend William Branwhite Clarke, one of the earliest geologists in the colony, came across particles of gold near Hartley in the Blue Mountains.

In 1844 he mentioned it to Governor Gipps who reportedly said: ‘Put it away Mr Clarke or we shall all have our throats cut’.

Gipps feared that mutiny would result if the people of New South Wales, the majority of whom were convicts or ex-convicts, found that gold was within easy reach.

The government’s attitude to gold discoveries changed in 1848 with news of the California gold rush. The promise of fortunes to be had across the Pacific led thousands of men to leave the colony, creating labour shortages and economic depression.

Governor Charles FitzRoy had heard rumours of the gold to be found in New South Wales and believed a mineral discovery in the colony could reverse the economic downturn. He convinced the British government in 1849 to appoint a government geologist, Samuel Stutchbury, and offered a reward to anyone who found a commercially viable amount of gold.

Three men stand by a stream. Two are looking into a gold pan. In the background is a hole with a shovel in it, and a man carrying a hoe.
'Prospectors' by ST Gill. National Museum of Australia.
A bearded man wearing a bright red jacket and holding his top aloft stands on a rocky outcrop holding the reins of his horse.
Mr E.H. Hargraves, the gold discoverer of Australia, Feb 12th 1851 returning the salute of the gold miners, 1875, oil painting by TT Balcombe. State Library of New South Wales.

Edward Hargraves

Edward Hargraves was a jack of all trades: farmer, storekeeper, publican, pearl-sheller and sailor. In 1849 he sailed for the Californian gold rush. He failed to find his fortune but was struck by the topographical and geological similarities between California and the interior of New South Wales.

In January 1851 he returned to the colony and immediately headed inland, convinced he would find gold and, more importantly, claim the government reward.

Near Bathurst, Hargraves enlisted the support of John Lister and brothers William and James Tom. Within weeks they had discovered a small amount of gold at a site Hargraves named Ophir, after a port city of great wealth mentioned in the Old Testament.

Hargraves returned to Sydney in March 1851 and presented his samples to the government. Samuel Stutchbury was sent to confirm the strike, which he did.

Hargraves was eventually awarded the £10,000 prize, which he refused to share with Lister or the Tom brothers.

News of the find was promptly published in the Sydney Morning Herald and by 15 May 1851, 300 diggers had arrived in Ophir. The rush was on.

Colour illustration of several men using gold mining cradles to wash for gold by a narrow river. They are surrounded by trees and in the background a small settlement is visible.
'Gold washing, Fitzroy Bar, Ophir diggings', 1851, print from a drawing by George French Angas. National Library of Australia.

Victorian gold rush

In the newly established colony of Victoria, men began to flood north to the New South Wales goldfields. The Victorian government responded with the offer of a reward of £200 to anyone finding gold within 200 miles of Melbourne. Within six months, gold was discovered in Clunes, and then Ballarat, Castlemaine and Bendigo.

The Victorian rush would dwarf the finds in New South Wales, accounting for more than a third of the world’s gold production in the 1850s.

A series of huts with gerry-rigged frames from which are suspended what appear to be canvas chutes extending down into holes in the ground. In the foreground three men are working around a pony and cart, which is filled with soil.
‘Deep Sinking’, Bakery Hill, Ballarat, 1853 by ST Gill. National Museum of Australia.

Migration boom

The discovery of gold started a series of rushes that transformed the other Australian colonies. Significant deposits were discovered in Tasmania from 1852, in Queensland from 1857 and in the Northern Territory from 1871. In the 1890s a new series of rushes were triggered by the discovery of huge gold fields at Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie in Western Australia.

Between 1851 and 1871 the Australian population trebled from 430,000 people to 1.7 million as migrants from Britain, China, North America and across continental Europe arrived in search of gold.

Studio photo of a game board with three pieces, an instruction manual and the box they came in. the box has a colourful illustration showing men holding a flag pointing at ships at sea. The pieces on the game board are ships and the board itself suggests that the game involves moving around an oval sea with an illustration of gold diggings in the centre.
‘Race to the gold diggings of Australia’ board game, about 1855. National Museum of Australia. Photo: Lannon Harley.

Among these were men and women bringing new political ideas to the young colonies.

Initially, the colonial establishment resisted such progressive thinking as a threat to their authority and the resulting tensions culminated in the Eureka Stockade. But a groundswell of public opinion brought about a series of world-leading social experiments, such as the secret ballot, the eight-hour day and the formation of the Labor Party.

Australia’s huge reserves of gold made the country a destination for people from around the globe and by the end of the 19th century the rushes had helped create a wealthy, liberal society with a standard of living that was the envy of the world.

Women on the goldfields film

Courtesy: Sovereign Hill Museums Association

For students

Can you strike it rich during the gold rush?
A great introduction to the goldfields, iPad optimised for players aged 8+
Victorian goldfields
Victorian goldfields
Kspace teacher resources, video and student quiz

From our collection

Black and white photo of two men standing in front of a hut
Daintree’s glass plates
Snapshots of mining and life in 1860s Queensland from geologist and photographer Richard Daintree
Cover for The Australian sketchbook
Australian Sketchbook
Popular sketches of life in the 1860s by artist Samuel Thomas Gill
Black and white photo of three men huddled around gold pan
Victorian goldfields nugget
The story of the Bealiba gold nugget, found near Bendigo
Ambrotype of a portrait of a man wearing 1850s clothing
Alexander Mussen collection
Objects about a miner who died at the hand of bushrangers

Further reading

Robyn Annear, Nothing but Gold: the diggers of 1852, Text Publishing, Melbourne, 1999.

David Goodman, Gold Seeking: Victoria and California in the 1850s, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA, 1994.

Weston Bate, Victorian Gold Rushes, McPhee Gribble/Penguin, Fitzroy, Victoria, 1988.

Geoffrey Serle, Golden Age: a history of the colony of Victoria, 1851–1861, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria, 1977.

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Other featured moments from this period

1854: Australia’s first railway line opens in Victoria
1813: Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth cross the Blue Mountains
1830: The ‘Black Line’ – settler force attempts to corral Aboriginal people on the Tasman Peninsula
1836: Governor Richard Bourke funds Protestant and Catholic churches in New South Wales on equal basis
1833: Convict transportation to Australia peaks when nearly 7000 people arrive in one year
1856: Melbourne building workers win an eight-hour day

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Topics:GoldIndustry and workMigration Places:New South WalesVictoria Curriculum subjects:Economics and BusinessGeographyHistory School years:Year 5Year 9Year 10