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Tonga

Stone adzes, with a round handle and knee made of a light brown lightweight wood with a four edged blade made of basalt, and attached to shaft with plaited coconut fibres.

Adzes toki

wood, basalt, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 35.5–39 cm, w. 3–4 cm (cutting edge), Inv. Oz 357

adzes, with a round handle and knee made of a light brown, lightweight wood with a four edged blade made of basalt, and firmly attached to the shaft with plaited coconut fibres

Adzes toki

wood, basalt, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 35.5–39 cm, w. 3–4 cm (cutting edge), Inv. Oz 358

Small stone adzes with round handle and knee made of a light brown, lightweight wood with a four edged blade made of basalt, firmly attached to the shaft with plaited coconut fibres.

Adzes toki

wood, basalt, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 35.5–39 cm, w. 3–4 cm (cutting edge), Inv. Oz 359

Apron made of black plant fibres plaited into a long band.

Apron liku

plant fibre, Tonga, possibly, manufactured in Fiji, l. 47 cm, w. 60 cm, Inv. Oz 150

Apron made of coconut fibre, shell, fish teeth and scarlet feathers

Apron sisi fale

coconut fibre, shell, teeth, feathers, Tonga, l. 55, w. 36 cm, Inv. Oz 142

Apron made of plant fibre and hand-woven into fine netting that forms a stripe and chequered pattern.

Apron ta’ovala

plant fibre, Tonga, l. 27, w. 34 cm, Inv. Oz 147

Five reed or bamboo arrows with  hardwood points.

Arrows ngahau

reed, wood, plant fibre, Tonga, various sizes, Inv. Oz 1261, 1514, 1515, 1512, 1513

Part of a very large piece of barkcloth, with broad black stripes that stands out only slightly against the blackish-brown background.

Barkcloth ngatu 'uli

Tonga, l. 62 cm, w. 124 cm, Inv. Oz 631

A thin piece of glazed barkcloth in a variety of singular figures decorated in red and black with alternating patterns, consisting of squares, and vertical and horizontal black lines.

Barkcloth ngatu

Tonga, l. 82 cm, w. 110 cm, Inv. Oz 577

Barkcloth featuring brown herring-bone pattern in which each stripe is separated from the other by a line.

Barkcloth ngatu

Tonga, l. 13.5 cm, w. 17 cm, Inv. Oz 599

Glazed barkcloth decorated with a pattern of diagonal brown lines.

Barkcloth ngatu tahina

Tonga, l. 120 cm, w. 250 cm, Inv. Oz 575

Large piece of glazed barkcloth decorated with a pattern of diagonal and vertical brown lines with a white border and large brown spots and stripes at both ends.

Barkcloth ngatu tahina

Tonga, l. 240 cm, w. 233 cm, Inv. Oz 576

Basket made of ‘alu (a native creeper with tendrils) and coconut fibres, with a rectangular opening in a dark brown colour.

Basket kato alu

alu (Epipremnum pennatum), coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 47.5 cm, h. 19.5 cm, w. 12 cm (top), 17 cm (middle), Inv. Oz 117

Basket made of ‘alu (a native creeper with tendrils) and coconut fibres with a slightly baggy rectangular opening, in a dark brown colour.

Basket kato alu

alu (Epipremnum pennatum), coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 59 cm, h. 23 cm, w. 7 cm (top), 13.5 cm (middle), Inv. Oz 118

Basket made of ‘alu (a native creeper with tendrils) and coconut fibres with an oval opening, in a dark brown colour.

Basket kato alu

alu (Epipremnum pennatum), coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 33 cm, h. 15 cm, w. 7 cm (at top), Inv. Oz 119

Basket made of pandanus leaves weaved into alternating narrow stripes in a brown or yellowish colour.

Basket kato

pandanus leaves, Tonga, w. 28 cm, h. 22 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 2

Basket, made of pandanus leaves with a cordage of plaited coconut fibre.

Basket kato

pandanus leaves, coconut fibre, Tonga, w. 21 cm, h. 12 cm, d. 18.5 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 41

Basket made of plant fibre, rectangular in shape with two small handles.

Basket kato kafa

plant fibre, Tonga, w. 38 cm, h. 31 cm, Inv. Oz 138

Oval-shaped basket made of coconut fibre and decorated with shells.

Basket kato mosi kaka

coconut fibre, shells, Tonga, w. 44 cm, h. 27 cm, Inv. Oz 122

Rectangular-shaped basket made of coconut fibre and decorated with shells.

Basket kato mosi kaka

coconut fibre, shells, Tonga, w. 61.5 cm, h. 40 cm, Inv. Oz 139

Basket made of sticks from the coconut palm leaf, wrapped up with coconut fibre strings, and connected with the same material.

Basket kato

coconut leaf ribs, fibre, Tonga, l. 54 cm, h. 28 cm, Inv. Oz 115

Basket made of sticks from the coconut palm leaf, wrapped up with coconut fibre strings, and connected to one other with the same material.

Basket kato

coconut leaf ribs, fibre, Tonga, l. 41 cm, h. 28 cm, Inv. Oz 116

Basket made of pandanus leaves of yellowish and brown strips with a torn handle of plaited coconut fibre.

Basket kato

pandanus leaves, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 35 cm, h. 16 cm, Inv. Oz 121

Basket made of pandanus leaves of yellowish and brown strips with a torn handle of plaited coconut fibre.

Basket kato

pandanus leaves, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 16 cm, w. 16 cm, h. 11 cm, Inv. Oz 398

Basket made of pandanus leaves of yellowish and brown strips with a torn handle of plaited coconut fibre.

Basket kato

pandanus leaves, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 18 cm, w. 16 cm, h. 14 cm, Inv. Oz 401

Curved bow of brown wood becoming slightly thinner towards both ends.

Bow kaufana

wood, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 186 cm, Inv. Oz 123

Bow made of brown wood and curved, becoming slightly thinner towards both ends (the string is missing)

Bow kaufana

wood, Tonga, l. 119 cm, Inv. Oz 1259

Breastplate made of whalebone. The surface is slightly round and curved, and polished on one side.

Breastplate ‘aofi (tui tofua’a)

whalebone, Tonga, 47.5 x 50 cm, Inv. Oz 137

Club made of brown wood with a handle that is slightly rhomboid shaped at one end and pointed at the other. Both ends separated by a pair of bulged rings.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 78 cm, w. 9 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 17

Club made of brown wood with the upper end a paddle-like shape.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 153 cm, w. 15 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 18

Club made of brown wood carved with curved or zigzag lines and other patterns, as well as with representations of human figures, fish and turtles.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 89 cm, Inv. Oz 124

Club made of brown wood. The upper end is larger and rhomboid-shaped – the lower end of the handle has a small knob.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 72 cm, Inv. Oz 125

Club made of brown wood with a handle that is slightly rhomboid shaped at one end and pointed at the other. Both ends separated by a bulged ring.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 86.5 cm, Inv. Oz 126

Club made of brown wood with a handle that is slightly rhomboid shaped at one end and pointed at the other. Both ends separated by a pair of bulged rings. A tiny knob on the bottom end.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 78.5 cm, Inv. Oz 127

Club made of brown wood with a handle that is slightly rhomboid shaped at one end and pointed at the other. Both ends separated by a bulged ring.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 80 cm, Inv. Oz 128

Club made of brown wood that is slightly rhomboid shaped at one end and ornamented with dots and diagonal, zigzag, and horizontal lines. Both ends separated by eight bulged rings.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 117 cm, w. 12.5 cm, Inv. Oz 130

Club made of brown wood that is rhomboid shaped at one end and ornamented with rhomboid, triangular, and linear patterns at the other. Ornamented part is divided by four groups of bulged rings.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 121 cm, w. 16 cm, Inv. Oz 131

Club made of brown wood. End of handle is round, but becomes rhomboid towards the middle. Upper end shaped like a paddle and both ends separated by two pairs of bulged rings.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 128 cm, Inv. Oz 351

Club made of brown wood that is slightly rhomboid shaped at one end and paddle-shaped at the other. Both ends separated by a pair of bulged rings framing a section of engraving.

Club ‘akau-ta

wood, Tonga, l. 134 cm, w. 16 cm, Inv. Oz 356

Jewellery & Adornment made from black-brown coconut discs arranged on a string.

Coconut discs tuinga kula

Tonga, d. 0.4–0.75 cm, Inv. Oz 185

 comb made of fifteen small sticks held together by a weave of coconut fibres.

Comb helu

coconut leaf midribs, plaited fibre, Tonga, l. 17 cm, w. 6.3 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 16

Comb made of small sticks of bamboo, fastened by a kind of wicker-work made with coconut fibres.

Comb helu

coconut leaf midribs, plaited fibre, Tonga, l. 13 cm, w. 5.5 cm, Inv. Oz 159

A comb made of twenty small sticks held together by a weave of red-brown and dark brown strings at the grip end.

Comb helu

coconut leaf midribs, plaited fibre, Tonga, l. 11 cm, w. 5 cm, Inv. Oz 160

A comb made of twenty-five small sticks held together by a weave of light brown fibres.

Comb helu

coconut leaf midribs, plaited fibre, Tonga, l. 14 cm, w. 8.5 cm, Inv. Oz 161

A comb made of sixteen small sticks held together by a weave of light brown fibres.

Comb helu

coconut leaf midribs, plaited fibre, Tonga, l. 15.5 cm, w. 5.5 cm, Inv. Oz 162

A comb made of seventeen small sticks woven together with a 4cm long weave made of light brown and black fibres.

Comb helu

coconut leaf midribs, plaited fibre, Tonga, l. 17.5, w. 6 cm, Inv. Oz 163

Dance paddle made of wood with an almost rectangular and rounded blade and a semi-circular knob at the end of the handle.

Dance paddle paki

wood, Tonga, l. 64–84 cm, Inv. Oz 135

Dance paddle made of wood with an almost rectangular and rounded blade (that is damaged at the lower end) and a semi-circular knob at the end of the handle.

Dance paddle paki

wood, Tonga, l. 64–84 cm, Inv. Oz 352

Dance paddle made of wood with an almost rectangular and rounded blade (that is damaged on one side) and a semi-circular knob at the end of the handle.

Dance paddle paki

wood, Tonga, l. 64–84 cm, Inv. Oz 353

Dance paddle made of wood with an almost rectangular and rounded blade (that is missing on one side) and a semi-circular knob at the end of the handle.

Dance paddle paki

wood, Tonga, l. 64–84 cm, Inv. Oz 354

Ear sticks of two long, round and white rods polished, made from a seashell.

Ear sticks teunga telinga

shell, Tonga, l. 5.2 cm; l. 7 cm, d. 0.5 cm (max.), Inv. Oz 178 a–b

Fishing spears made of a dark brown bamboo tube, with a three-part point made of a dark wood at the ends, attached with finely plaited coconut fibres.

Fish spears tao velo

bamboo, wood, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 115.5 cm; l. 220 cm, Inv. Oz 449, 1519

Large fishhook, with wood shank backed with mother-of-pearl and tied together. A barbed tortoiseshell hook also attached to the end.

Fishhook ipa or aipa

whalebone, mother-of-pearl, wood, tortoiseshell, fau fibre, Tonga, l 15 -15.5 cm, Inv. Oz 211

Fishhook with wood shank backed with mother-of-pearl and tied together. A barbed Tortoiseshell hook also attached to the end.

Fishhook ipa or aipa

whalebone, mother-of-pearl, wood, tortoiseshell, fau fibre, Tonga, l 15 -15.5 cm, Inv. Oz 213

Fishhook with whalebone shank backed with mother-of-pearl and tied together, with a barbed tortoiseshell hook and attached to the end.

Fishhook ipa or aipa

whalebone, mother-of-pearl, wood, tortoiseshell, fau fibre, Tonga, l 15 -15.5 cm, Inv. Oz 216

Fishhook with mother-of-pearl shank, the hook made of Tortoiseshell secured together with plant fibres.

Fishhook mata’u

mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 4– 9.5 cm, Inv. Oz 207

Fishhook with mother-of-pearl shank, the hook made of tortoiseshell, both secured together with twisted cord of plant fibre.

Fishhook mata’u

mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 4– 9.5 cm, Inv. Oz 209

Fishhook with mother-of-pearl shank, the hook made of tortoiseshell, both secured together with twisted cord of plant fibre.

Fishhook mata’u

mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 4– 9.5 cm, Inv. Oz 212

Fishhook with mother-of-pearl shank, the hook made of tortoiseshell, both secured together with plaited cord of plant fibre to form the line.

Fishhook mata’u

mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 4– 9.5 cm, Inv. Oz 214

Fishhook with mother-of-pearl shank, the hook made of tortoiseshell, both secured together with plaited cord of plant fibre to form the line.

Fishhook mata'u

mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 4– 9.5 cm, Inv. Oz 215

A fly-flap or whisk, made of coconut fibres, affixed to a wooden handle of reddish–brown colour, polished and bulged at both ends and a tassel of blackish-brown coconut fibres.

Flywhisk fue kafa

wood, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 31 cm (handle), 25 cm (tassel, max.), Inv. Oz 149

A food suspension made of flat, round white wood, that suspends from the ceiling. The smooth side of the rim has a pattern with one row of black triangles, each with a zigzag line on top.

Food suspension hook taunga

wood, Tonga, d. 25.5 cm, l. 15.5 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 56

Headrest made of wood, the ‘seat’ is slightly curved and supported by a pair of horseshoe-shaped legs. The ‘seat’ becomes wider from the middle towards both ends.

Headrest kali

wood, Tonga, l. 63–75.5 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 6

Headrest made of wood, the ‘seat’ is slightly curved and supported by a pair of horseshoe-shaped legs. The ‘seat’ becomes wider from the middle towards both ends.

Headrest kali

wood, Tonga, l. 63–75.5 cm, Inv. Oz 347

Headrest made of wood, the ‘seat’ is slightly curved and supported by a pair of horseshoe-shaped legs. The ‘seat’ becomes wider from the middle towards both ends.

Headrest kali

wood, Tonga, l. 63–75.5 cm, Inv. Oz 348

Headrest made of a hard wood and used as a pillow. A semi-circular piece with a flat, rectangular upper surface. One side forms one leg and the other divides into two legs.

Headrest kali

wood, Tonga, l. 70 cm, b. 4.3 cm (middle), h. 14.5 cm (middle), Inv. Oz 690

Kava bowl made of one piece of wood that is round and shallow, and rests on four legs.

Kava bowl kumete

wood, Tonga, h. 14.5 cm, d. 52 cm, Inv. Oz 409

Lure that consists of a brownish, cone-shaped piece of stalactite, securely fastened to a large leopard cowry shell, a twig for a tail all tied together with braided coconut fibres.

Lure maka feke

stalactite, cowrie shell, wood, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 22.5 cm, Inv. Oz 219

Mat features alternating light brown and unpatterned, and dark brown patterned diagonals.

Mat fala

leaf strips, Tonga, l. 192 cm, w. 134 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 9

Mat made of diagonally plaited leaf strips.

Mat fau

leaf strips, Tonga, l. 78 cm, w. 166 cm, Inv. Oz 151

Mat made of diagonally plaited light yellow leaf strips, by alternately placing one stripe with the glazed side of the leaf up and the other with the unglazed side up.

Mat kie efu

leaf strips, possibly pandanus, Tonga, l. 250 cm, w. 168 cm, Inv. Oz 144

Mat made of light and dark brown plaited flax strips, with an alternation of different geometric patterns.

Mat

leaf strips, pandanus type (probably kie), Tonga, l. 130 cm, w. 126 cm, Inv. Oz 533

Mat made from a white plant material. The leaf strips are diagonally plaited. Mat edges are fringed.

Mat sina

leaf strips, Tonga, imported from Samoa, l. 145 cm, w. 100 cm, Inv. Oz 146

Mat made of dark and light plaited leaf strips interwoven in different ways to form patterns in the dark diagonals.

Mat ta’ovala

leaf strips, Tonga, l. 149 cm, w. 165 cm, Inv. Oz 141

Necklace consisting of flat white shells, brown wooden discs, small red snail shells, one larger snail shell, and one tooth arranged on string.

Necklace tuinga kahoa

shells, snail shells, wood, tooth, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 78 cm, Inv. Oz 191

Necklace consisting of small wooden discs incorporated into a plaited string.

Necklace tuinga kahoa

wood, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 43 cm, Inv. Oz 192

Necklace consisting of small brown snail shells arranged on a string.

Necklace tuinga kahoa

snail shells, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 60 cm, Inv. Oz 193

Necklace consisting of small red snail shells arranged onto a plaited string.

Necklace tuinga kahoa

snail shell, coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 54 cm, Inv. Oz 194

Necklace consisting of small white shells, small dark wooden discs, small reddish-brown snail shells and larger pieces of tortoiseshell arranged on a string.

Necklace tuinga kahoa

beads, shell, Tonga, l. 60 cm, Inv. Oz 195

Necklace consisting of pairs of brown snail-shells and bird bones arranged alternately on a string.

Necklace tuinga kahoa

snail shell, bird bones, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 94 cm, Inv. Oz 196

Necklace made of small brown oval seeds and white snail shells.

Necklaces (fragments) tuinga kahoa

seeds, shells, cord, Tonga, Inv. Oz 187

Necklace consisting of brown oval seeds and white snail shells.

Necklaces (fragments) tuinga kahoa

seeds, shells, cord, Tonga, Inv. Oz 188

Long wooden needles made of dark brown wood and pointed at the ends with an eye at the wider end.

Netting needles hui, netting needle hui kupenga

wood, Tonga, l. 40 cm, l. 32 cm; l. 29, l. 23cm, Inv. Oz 200, 201, 203, 204

A bamboo nose flute, closed at both ends. It has six holes along the stem: three are in a row, one at each end, and the other in the middle.

Nose flute fangufangu

bamboo, Tonga, l. 52 cm, d. 3.5 cm, Inv. Oz 407

A flat square bone pendant with half notches on all sides and perforated at the corners.

Ornament ki’i teunga

bone, Tonga, l. 3 cm, w. 4 cm, Inv. Oz 164

A small ornament made of bone carved in the form of a headrest.

Ornament ki’i teunga

bone, Tonga, l. 4 cm, h. 1.4 cm, w. 0.7 cm, Inv. Oz 170

An ornament made of bone carved in the form of a bird.

Ornament ki’i teunga

bone, Tonga, l. 4 cm, h. 1.2 cm, Inv. Oz 173

An ornament made of bone carved in the form of a fin of a fish.

Ornament ki’i teunga

bone, Tonga, l. 5.5 cm, w. 1.5 cm, Inv. Oz 177

Three bone ornaments. The first is barrel-shaped, the second is a round long piece grooved around the middle, and the third is in the shape of a boat or roof.

Ornament ki’i teunga

bone, Tonga, l. 2 cm, l.1.6 cm, l. 2.5 cm, Inv. Oz 181, 182, 175

An ornament made of bone carved in the form of a flower.

Ornament ki’i teunga

bone, Tonga, l. 5.8 cm, Inv. Oz 184

An ornament made of bone carved in the form of a snail or seashell.

Ornament ki’i teunga

bone, Tonga, l. 3 cm, h. 1.7 cm, Inv. Oz 205

Breast ornament consisting of mussel shell that has been sanded and polished.

Ornamental disc teunga kahoa

mussel shell, plant fibre, Tonga, d. 15.5 cm, Inv. Oz 165a

An ornament made of animal teeth, pointed at one end and perforated at the other.

Ornaments ki’i teunga

animal teeth, Tonga, l. 2.5–3 cm, Inv. Oz 174 a–b, 176 a–b

Overskirt made of diagonally plaited leaf strips incorporating leaf-like elements.

Overskirt vala

leaf strips, Tonga, l. 51–60 cm, w. 120 cm, Inv. Oz 143

Paddle made of one piece of brown wood with an oval-shaped blade that is pointed at one end.

Paddle fohe

wood, Tonga, l. 144.5 cm, w. 32 cm, Inv. Oz 355

Panpipes made of bamboo and consists of nine single pipes varied in length bound together with three wrappings of coconut fibre.

Panpipes mimiha

bamboo, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 16–27 cm, w. 9.8 cm, Inv. Oz 157

Panpipes made of bamboo and consists of ten single pipes varied in length bound together with two wrappings of coconut fibre.

Panpipes mimiha

bamboo, plant fibre, Tonga, l. 15–22.5 cm, w. 8.5 cm, Inv. Oz 158

 round flat pendant made of a large volute shell perforated at the upper edge.

Pendant shell Ki’i teunga kahoa

Tonga, d. 6 cm, Inv. Oz 183

Pendant consisting of a number of elements such as bone, fish teeth and pieces of tortoiseshell tied on a string. The lowest element is a white, perforated shell disc.

Pendant tuinga

shell, tortoiseshell, bone, teeth, cord, Tonga, l. 12 cm, Inv. Oz 190

Pounder made out of a piece of heavy wood, and polished. The shaft is broader lower down and ends in a large wooden knob.

Pounder tuki

Wood, Tonga, l. 30 cm, d. 4 cm and 10.6 cm, Inv. Oz 81

Spearhead made from the backbone of a stingray with a plaited band of coconut fibres threaded through a hole at the flattened end.

Ray sting foto

Tonga, l. 13 cm, Inv. Oz 217

Spearhead made from the backbone of a stingray and broken off at one end.

Ray sting foto

Tonga, l. 19 cm, Inv. Oz 218

Rope made of reddish-brown and blackish-brown coconut fibre cords plaited together several times.

Rope no’o

coconut fibre, Tonga, l. 320 cm, w. 4 cm, Inv. Oz 318

Long narrow piece of striped and chequered black and white matting made of ight and dark brown plaited flax strips.

Section of a mat

leaf strips, Tonga, l. 152 cm, Hanover 1854, No. 52

Jewellery & Adornment consisting of thirty-one white and beige-coloured shell discs arranged on a string.

Shell discs tuinga kula

Tonga, d. 0.4–0.7 cm, Inv. Oz 180

of apron made of red-brown dyed musa leaves, knotted to a plaited band.

Skirt or apron tapu

dyed musa leaves, Tonga, l. 140 cm, w. 190 cm, Inv. Oz 152

Branch-like head adornment made of ten white snail shells woven into a plaited band made of plant fibres.

Snail shells teunga

Tonga, d. 0.7 cm, Inv. Oz 186

Jewellery & Adornment made from reddish-brown and blackish-brown tortoise shell discs arranged on a string.

Tortoiseshell discs tuinga kula

Tonga, d. 0.6–1.4 cm, Inv. Oz 189

Two curved boar tusks, white, but with a light yellow colouration in several places.

Two boar tusks nifo puaka

Tonga, l. 14–16.5 cm, Inv. Oz 171, 172