The Australian Journeys gallery explores the journeys of people to and from Australia and the social, political and economic impacts of those journeys. Here are some of the objects that were previously on show in the gallery. These objects are from the National Museum's collections, unless otherwise stated.
All photos by George Serras, Lannon Harley, Dragi Markovic and Dean McNicoll, unless otherwise stated.
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Brick used to construct a Bendigo kiln
Chinese industry on the goldfields
In 1859 the Bendigo Advertiser reported that A'Fok, Fok Sing and Co. had applied for a lease of ground near the Chinese encampment to build a brick kiln.
One hundred and forty-five years later, archaeologists from Heritage Victoria excavated the site of the kiln, recovering bricks including this one, believed to be part of an arch.
Some 4000 Chinese men and women migrated to the Bendigo goldfields in the 1850s. They were entitled to mine surface alluvial gold but the authorities excluded them from delving for the deeper quartz deposits.
As a result, many gave up mining and started businesses in service industries instead, doing laundry, market gardening, shopkeeping or, like A'Fok, Fok Sing and Co., making bricks.
Lent by Heritage Victoria.
Following British fashions
By the 1880s wool was Australia's most important export. Thousands of fleeces were shipped to Britain's mills to be scoured, carded, combed, spun, dyed and woven into cloth.
Some of the wool eventually returned to Australia — as bolts of fabric or ready-made clothing, drapery and furnishings.
The Faithfull family of Springfield station, near Goulburn, New South Wales, grew wealthy supplying wool to Britain. In about 1885, one Faithfull daughter bought this dress from David Jones department store in Sydney.
This pink fine wool dress consists of a bodice and skirt, made in about 1885. It represented the latest in British fashion, but its origins probably lay close to home. It is made of fine wool of the type grown on Springfield.
'Red Lady with Laurel Wreath' sketch by Adelaide Ironside
First Australian artist to study abroad
Adelaide Ironside was the first Australian-born artist to study in Europe. In 1855, she sailed for Rome, determined to master the art of fresco painting.
This crayon sketch was completed in 1856. While abroad Ironside also completed Saint Catherine of Alessandria as Patroness of Philosophy, her first oil on canvas. It was shown to acclaim at the 1862 London International Exhibition.
Lent by a private collector.
Pocket chronometer used on board HMS 'Beagle'
Charles Darwin's time in Australia
Charles Darwin travelled as a naturalist on board the Beagle during its scientific expedition around the world from 1831 to 1836.
In 1836 he made observations on Australia's natural history, which contributed to the development of the theory of evolution.
This chronometer, made by the British watchmaker Robert Pennington, was one of 22 carried aboard the Beagle. Only two survive today.
Lent by the British Museum.
Several chronometers are on show in the Australian Journeys gallery, along with a film which shows an 1825 Barraud chronometer from the National Museum's collection at work.
Sir George Reid's walking stick
A statesman's journeys to Britain
In 1916 Australian politician Sir George Reid took his seat as the Member for St George's Hanover Square in the United Kingdom's House of Commons.
Reid came to Westminster having served in both the New South Wales and Commonwealth parliaments, including terms as premier and prime minister. He is the only Australian to have ever sat in all three parliaments.
He had played a critical role in the federation of the Australian colonies, and had been Australia's first high commissioner in London.
As well-known for his girth as for his compelling speeches, Reid relied on a walking stick to get around. In July 1917 British prime minister David Lloyd George gave Reid this walking stick in acknowledgement of his support during the Great War.
Listen to 'George Reid: A journey through three parliaments' audio
Senior curator Martha Sear detailed her research on George Reid's walking stick in a presentation at the National Museum on 13 August 2008.
Sandpiper specimen collected by Robert Hall and Ernie Trebilcock
Tracking migratory birds from Australia to Siberia
In 1903 Australian ornithologist Robert Hall and his assistant, Ernie Trebilcock, travelled to Russia to research the migratory patterns of birds.
They collected this sandpiper specimen at the mouth of the Lena River in Siberia. This was tangible proof that, each year, shorebirds such as the sandpiper travel 26,000 kilometres from southern Australia to their breeding grounds in the wetlands of Siberia and back.
This specimen was among more than 200 sold to English naturalist Walter Rothschild.
Today, the Australian Wader Study Group continues Hall and Trebilcock's work, tracking birds migrating along the East Asian–Australasian Flyway from Australia to Siberia.
Lent by the American Museum of Natural History.