The Journeys gallery explores the journeys of people to and from Australia and the social, political and economic impacts of those journeys. Here are some of the highlights from the 750 objects on show in the gallery. These objects are from the National Museum's collections, unless otherwise stated.
All photos by George Serras, Lannon Harley, Dragi Markovic and Dean McNicoll, unless otherwise stated.
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Makassar fishermen's journey to Australia
From at least 1700 until 1907, hundreds of fishermen sailed each year from Makasar on the island of Sulawesi, now in Indonesia, to the northern Australian coast. They voyaged to this place they called 'Marege' in search of a valuable delicacy known as trepang — edible sea cucumbers.
Fishermen arrived each December and camped along the Arnhem Land coast, catching, boiling and drying trepang. They met, traded and worked with local Aboriginal people. Then, each April, as the monsoon winds began to blow, the fishermen returned to Makassar with the holds of their boats carrying trepang to be traded north to China.
Trepang include several species of the class Holothuroidea. They live mostly in tropical waters and are usually 10 to 50 centimetres long, although some grow to more than a metre.
Indigenous journeys of exchange
For thousands of years the Indigenous people of northern Australia traded shells, ochre, feathers and other materials with their neighbours on the continent and beyond it.
Baler shell was collected in the Gulf of Carpenteria in Australia's north and traded south and west across Australia. With each exchange the value increased. On the coast, shells were used for water carriers and scrapers. In Central Australia they became sacred and ceremonial objects.
This exchange connected Aboriginal people in Australia's north to others in Central Australia and as far south as the present-day Flinders Ranges in South Australia.
This baler shell, cut through the whorl section, is from the early 1900s.
Captain James Cook's magnifier
Navigating the Pacific
This tortoiseshell magnifier was used by British naval officer Captain James Cook, probably to look closely at maps or specimens.
Cook sailed to the Pacific three times in the 1770s, charting and claiming places previously unknown to Europeans, including the east coast of Australia.
The magnifier came into the possession of astronomer William Bayly on Cook's last voyage. Bayly sailed twice with Cook, taking observations that would assist British navigators to establish their longitude.
Despite what the inscription says on its elaborate silver case, the magnifier may not have been a gift. After Cook was killed in Hawaii in 1779, his possessions were auctioned 'before the mast' and Bayly may have bought the memento then. This was a common way of raising money for a dead sailor's family.
Thomas Lock's convict token
A convict's token of remembrance
Some 160,000 convicts were sent to the Australian colonies from 1788 to 1868.
One of those convicts was Thomas Lock. He was convicted of highway robbery and sentenced to 10 years' transportation to New South Wales.
Before Lock left England, as he waited in prison for his sentence to be carried out, he used a penny to make a token of remembrance to leave behind. The inscription reads:
WHEN / THIS YOU / SEE / REMEMBER /
ME WHEN / I AM FAR / FROM the[e] /
THOMAS / LOCK / AGED 22 / TRANSPed /
Lock gave this memento to a loved one when he sailed for Australia. He arrived in Sydney in September 1845. It is not known if he ever returned to England.
Listen to 'Stories of sadness and loss' audio
Collector and consultant Peter Lane detailed his research on convict tokens in a presentation at the National Museum on 13 June 2009. The talk also covered the Alexander Mussen ambrotype and the Muriel McPhee trousseau.
Gold washing cradle
Discovery of gold in New South Wales
Edward Hammond Hargraves is credited with the discovery of gold at Ophir in Australia in 1851.
He returned to Australia from the Californian goldfields determined to find gold in New South Wales. In Bathurst local men John Lister and William, James and Henry Tom showed Hargraves sites where they had found gold specks.
Using a cradle similar to those Hargraves had seen in California, the men washed the first payable gold, and started the gold rush in Australia.
This cradle, collected in the Ballarat area of Victoria, is one of thousands of cradles used by miners to extract surface alluvial gold from sites across Australia in the mid-19th century.
Made of Douglas fir imported to Australia or recycled from packing crates or other objects, the cradle has handmade metal nails and corner fixtures.
Preserving the Welsh language in Australia
The 1850s gold rush drew thousands of Welsh immigrants to Victoria. A Welsh chapel was built in La Trobe Street, Melbourne, in 1857. A church was erected on the same site in 1871.
At the Welsh Church, settlers and sojourners from Wales could sing and worship in Welsh — for most their first language. Presbyterian services in the Welsh language continue there to this day.
This Welsh hymnal from 1869 was used in the Melbourne Welsh Church. An organ which accompanied services at the church from the 1880s to the 1930s is also on show in the Australian Journeys gallery.