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Transcript: Directions for Sea-men
'Directions for Sea-men bound for far voyages' 1661 by Lawrence Rooke.
- To observe ye declination of ye Compass, or its variation from ye meridian of ye place, frequently marking withall ye latitude and longitude of ye place, where ever such observation is made, as exactly as may be, and setting down ye method, by which they made them.
- To carry dipping needles with you, and observe ye inclination of ye needle in like manner.
- To remark carefully ye ebbings and flowings of the sea in as many places, as they can, together withall ye accidents, ordinary and extraordinary of ye tides, as their precise time of ebbing and flowing in rivers, at promontories and on coasts, which way their currents runs, what perpendicular distance there is between ye highest tide and lowest ebbe, during ye spring-tides and neap-tides, what day of the moon's age ye highest and lowest tides fall out, And all other considerable Accidents, they can observe in ye tides, chiefly near ports and about islands, and in St Helena's Island and ye three rivers there.
- To make plots and draughts of ye prospect of Considerable Coasts, Promontories, Islands and Ports, marking ye bearings and distances as neer a they can.
- To sound and mark ye depth of coasts and Ports, and such other places neer ye shoare, as they shall think fit.
- To sound and mark ye depths of ye ocean in severall places, as ye Bay of Biscay
- To take notice of ye nature and ye soyle of ye bottom of ye Sea in all soundings, whether it be clay, sand, rock, etc.
- To keep register of all changes of wind and weather at all houres, by night and by day, showing ye point ye wind blows from; whether strong or weak: ye raines, hailes, snow etc., ye precise times of their beginnings and continuance, especially Hurricanes and Spouts: And above all
- To take exact care, to observe ye trade winds, about which degree of latitude and longitude they first begin, where and when they cease, or grow stronger or weaker, and how much as neer and exact as may be.
- To observe and record all extraordinary meteors, lightenings, thunderstorms, ignes fatui, comets etc., marking still ye place and times of their appearing, continuance, etc.
- To carry with you good scales and glass-vialls of a pint or so with very narrow mouths, which are to be filled with Sea-water in different degrees of latitude, as often as they please, and ye weight of ye viall full of water, and recorded, marking withal ye degree of latitude and ye day of ye month.
- To take up Sea-water in severall places, 2, 3, or 400 fathoms deep to compare ye weight and saltiness thereof with ye water upon ye [surfaces]: ye way to do this is mentioned below.
- To keep an exact dyary containing these things mentioned, and all other ordinary observations relating to ye ship's course, and all such extraordinary things as occur, and at their return unto England to deliver one copy of their diary, finely written, and their course prick't out upon their Card, for his R. Highness ye Duke of York and another to Trinity house to be perused by ye Society at Gresham Colledge.
- To observe ye end of ye moon's Eclipse ye night after ye 8? Of August 1663.
- To observe ye total darkness of ye moon's Eclipse, it will be ye night after ye 27 July 1664, ye hour it begins to be totally dark, and ye duration of ye totall darkness.