The Australian Journeys gallery explores the journeys of people to and from Australia and the social, political and economic impacts of those journeys. Here are some of the objects that were previously on show in the gallery. These objects are from the National Museum's collections, unless otherwise stated.
All photos by George Serras, Lannon Harley, Dragi Markovic and Dean McNicoll, unless otherwise stated.
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'Maris Pacifici quod vulgo Mar del Zur' map (Pacific Ocean, currently known as the South Sea) by Abraham Ortelius
European imaginings of the Great South Land
Map by Abraham Ortelius, hand-coloured print from an engraved copper plate published by Plantin Press, Antwerp, 1595.
Ortelius's map included up-to-date information from European explorers who had visited the Pacific. It also reproduced ideas about the Southern Hemisphere from ancient Greek times. Made before any European is known to have set foot on the Australian continent, Maris Pacifici perpetuated the northern belief that at the bottom of the world was a great south land.
Ambrotype portrait of Alexander Mussen
Remembering a Canadian gold miner
In 1856 Alexander Mussen sailed from Canada for the Australian goldfields. Mussen was the son of a prosperous Montreal merchant.
He travelled in search of wealth and adventure, and to find a new life so he might redeem himself in the eyes of his family.
Twenty-two-year-old Mussen moved to 'Nuggety Gulley' in New South Wales to put half the world between him and the friends who had drawn him into debt and disgrace. He was shot dead by a bushranger while trying to protect a local store.
A few years before Mussen travelled to New South Wales he sat for an ambrotype portrait. The photographer was Mathew Brady, now well known for his photographs of the American Civil War. It seems that Mussen left this portrait with his family in Montreal, where it became a treasured memento of a son who never returned.
Listen to 'Stories of sadness and loss' audio
Curator Laina Hall detailed her research into Alexander Mussen in a presentation at the National Museum on 13 June 2009. The talk also covered the Muriel McPhee trousseau and convict tokens.
'Race to the Gold Diggings of Australia' children's board game
Imagining a journey to the gold diggings
Australia, Victoria, Port Phillip: in the English imagination of the 1850s, these names became synonymous with gold, opportunity and adventure.
Thousands of British men and women boarded ships for the three-month journey to Victoria, braving separation and shipwreck for the chance to make a quick fortune.
In England in the 1850s, stories about life on the goldfields and advice for potential emigrants were in high demand.
One company produced the board game, 'Race to the Gold Diggings of Australia'. It invites children to imagine the excitement and wealth promised by a journey to the far reaches of the British Empire.Explore the 'Gold Rush' interactive
Following British fashions
By the 1880s wool was Australia's most important export. Thousands of fleeces were shipped to Britain's mills to be scoured, carded, combed, spun, dyed and woven into cloth.
Some of the wool eventually returned to Australia — as bolts of fabric or ready-made clothing, drapery and furnishings.
The Faithfull family of Springfield station, near Goulburn, New South Wales, grew wealthy supplying wool to Britain. In about 1885, one Faithfull daughter bought this dress from David Jones department store in Sydney.
This pink fine wool dress consists of a bodice and skirt, made in about 1885. It represented the latest in British fashion, but its origins probably lay close to home. It is made of fine wool of the type grown on Springfield.
'Red Lady with Laurel Wreath' sketch by Adelaide Ironside
First Australian artist to study abroad
Adelaide Ironside was the first Australian-born artist to study in Europe. In 1855, she sailed for Rome, determined to master the art of fresco painting.
This crayon sketch was completed in 1856. While abroad Ironside also completed Saint Catherine of Alessandria as Patroness of Philosophy, her first oil on canvas. It was shown to acclaim at the 1862 London International Exhibition.
Lent by a private collector.
Pocket chronometer used on board HMS 'Beagle'
Charles Darwin's time in Australia
Charles Darwin travelled as a naturalist on board the Beagle during its scientific expedition around the world from 1831 to 1836.
In 1836 he made observations on Australia's natural history, which contributed to the development of the theory of evolution.
This chronometer, made by the British watchmaker Robert Pennington, was one of 22 carried aboard the Beagle. Only two survive today.
Lent by the British Museum.
Several chronometers are on show in the Australian Journeys gallery, along with a film which shows an 1825 Barraud chronometer from the National Museum's collection at work.