The Journeys gallery explores the journeys of people to and from Australia and the social, political and economic impacts of those journeys. Here are some of the highlights from the 750 objects on show in the gallery. These objects are from the National Museum's collections, unless otherwise stated.
All photos by George Serras, Lannon Harley, Dragi Markovic and Dean McNicoll, unless otherwise stated.
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Tree clearing tools used by group settlers
Clearing the land
Group settlers — known as 'groupies' — were mainly British migrants brought to Australia and given land for farms as part of an Empire-wide migration scheme.
They lived in 'group settlements' of 20 farms, helping each other establish their properties. But conditions were so tough, especially in the Great Depression, that many were forced to abandon their farms.
In Western Australia, group settlers were given land in dense jarrah and karri forests, which they had to clear by using hand tools and horses.
This image shows group settlers resting on a giant karri tree at Denmark, Western Australia, in the 1920s. A horse-driven stump puller and saws used in tree clearing are also on show in the Australian Journeys gallery. These objects were lent by the Denmark Historical Society.
Photo: Denmark Historical Society.
Eyemo motion picture camera used by Damien Parer
Filming Kokoda Front Line!
The Second World War arrived on Australia's doorstep in July 1942. Japanese forces advanced across the island of New Guinea to the north of Australia, and Australian soldiers rushed to meet them on the steep, forested slopes of the Owen Stanley Ranges.
Australian cameraman Damien Parer accompanied the 21st Brigade to New Guinea where he filmed the troops' gruelling trek along the Kokoda Trail.
His film, Kokoda Front Line!, brought the campaign home to Australian audiences. This Eyemo camera is believed to be one of several he used to make the award-winning documentary.
Toy pig won by Erin Craig
A family reunited after World War Two
In 1942, during the Second World War, Iris Adams went to a Red Cross dance in Sydney. She met Jim Craig, a master sergeant in the United States Army who was stationed in Australia. Four months later they were married.
Their daughter Erin was born in Sydney in May 1945. Jim Craig returned to the United States at the end of the war and Iris and Erin left Australia to join him.
En route to San Francisco, Erin won a prize in a competition for the child with the reddest hair on the SS Lurline. Her prize was this toy pig, treasured by Erin for 60 years and donated to the National Museum of Australia in 2007.
'Gender barung pelog' from the Gamelan orchestra
Promoting Indonesian independence
In 1926 a Javanese court musician named Pontjopangrawit was imprisoned by the colonial government of the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia. He was held at the remote Tanah Merah camp, on the Digul River, in Irian Jaya, now West Papua.
Pontjopangrawit appropriated wood, nails and tins from camp supplies and used them to make a suite of instruments for a gamelan orchestra. It is known as the gamelan Digul, or the orchestra made on the river Digul. The gendèr barung pélog is one of the instruments from this orchestra.
When the Japanese invaded the East Indies in 1942, the Dutch government sent its Tanah Merah prisoners to a camp at Cowra, New South Wales.
Pontjopangrawit's gamelan Digul travelled with the prisoners to Australia. Two years later, the prisoners were released. Many moved to Melbourne and worked towards Indonesian independence. The gamelan's music became an integral part of their campaign.
'Little Red Riding Hood' wall-hanging
In the aftermath of the Second World War, Australian teacher Valerie Paling travelled to Germany to work for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.
Her job was to help resettle some of the thousands of people displaced during the war. Paling received the Little Red Riding Hood wall-hanging in thanks for her work at a displaced persons camp near the town of Ulm.
The hanging was created by Olga Basylevich, a Ukrainian refugee, using a United Nations issue blanket and scraps of fabric and fur.
Paling returned to Australia with the wall-hanging. She donated it to the Forest Hill Kindergarten in Melbourne, where it was displayed until 1990.
View the Little Red Riding Hood animation (MPEG4 18.3mb) duration 05:24
An animation of the Grimm Brothers' 1812 version of the Little Red Riding Hood story, based on the wall-hanging, appears in the Australian Journeys gallery.
Listen to 'Re-presenting Little Red Riding Hood'
Curator Karen Schamberger detailed her research on the Little Red Riding Hood wall-hanging in a presentation at the National Museum on 30 May 2008.
Carmelo Mirabelli's camera and case
Capturing an Italian migrant's journey through Australia
Sicilian-born Carmelo Mirabelli arrived in Sydney on the ship Assimina in 1951, and immediately headed north to cut sugarcane.
He followed seasonal harvests across the country for five years, then settled in Brisbane because its climate reminded him of Sicily. He later moved to Melbourne in search of work.
Mirabelli used this Zeiss Ikon camera to record his experiences as an itinerant worker in Australia during the 1950s. He photographed himself, friends and workers on the sugarcane fields of Queensland and the orchards and vineyards of Victoria.
Migration did not end Mirabelli's connection to Sicily — he sent money to his mother back home and photographs that showed what life was like in Australia.