This acrylic painting depicts a ceremonial performance of the Yawalyurru (Native Currant) Dreaming story. Accused of causing the death of another totem leader, the Yawalyurru ancestor is pursued by a kutatji (revenge killer), depicted as the U shape alongside the large circles. The lines on each side represent the river of blood or dark red juice of the crushed Yawalyurru fruit, which flowed into the desert and collected in a waterhole. From here it was drunk by younger men for its life force. The same design is repeated to give the painting its symmetry, a common feature of Anmatyerr artists' work. The painting is by Dinny Nolan Tjampitjinpa and measures 2,010 mm x 1,714 mm. This resource includes a line diagram illustrating the symbols used in the painting and a map showing sites of significance.Educational value
Dinny Nolan Tjampitjinpa (c1946-) is the younger 'brother' of Kaapa Tjampitjinpa and a cousin of Clifford Possum, Tim Leura and Billy Stockman Tjapaltjarri, all Papunya Tula artists. He is from the Warlpiri language group and was born west of Mount Allan, near present-day Yuendumu. He worked as a stockman before settling in Papunya to paint for Papunya Tula in the mid-1970s. In 1981 he visited Sydney with Paddy Carroll Tjungurrayi to construct the first ground painting to be seen outside of central Australia, on Observatory Hill.
The Papunya artists explain that their paintings come from the Dreaming. Like the natural features that mark out the journeys of ancestral beings and the ceremonies that re-enact these journeys, the paintings are both part of the Dreaming and part of the physical world. Papunya artist Benny (Pinny) Tjapaltjarri says, 'The Dreaming is our explanation of how the landforms appeared. A Dreaming character would come along and stay at a place and then turn into a hill or stone. Sometimes his tracks would become a soak or perhaps a rock hole ... People were also created by the Dreaming. You see, we are all born from our mothers ... but we still come from the Dreaming ... the Dreaming came first'.
By painting the designs and stories that represent their particular Dreaming places, the artists assert their rights and obligations as Central and Western Desert landowners, entrusted with the ritual re-enactment of the events that occurred at these sites. As part of these ceremonies, elaborate ground paintings are constructed using a symbolic language of U shapes, concentric circles, journey lines and bird and animal tracks. This unique visual language is also used in designs painted on the skin, and is the same language made familiar by the Papunya painters.
The Western Desert art movement, which began at Papunya, is considered to be the genesis of contemporary Aboriginal art. Geoffrey Bardon, a young art teacher who worked at Papunya School from 1971 to 1972, is often credited as the founder of Papunya Tula Artists Pty Ltd, which was incorporated in 1972. He encouraged the senior men of the various language groups living at Papunya to develop ways of adapting their traditional art to Western materials.
The Australian Government played a crucial role in supporting the painting movement in the years following Bardon's departure from Papunya. In 1973 the Whitlam government formed the Aboriginal Arts Board, with members who were all Indigenous Australians. It fostered Aboriginal arts, literature, theatre, dance, music, painting and craft, and also provided grants for Aboriginal communities to employ managers and to help preserve and sustain Aboriginal culture, arts and crafts. Many large Papunya works were commissioned by the Aboriginal Arts Board during the 1970s as part of its exhibition program in Australia and overseas. This collection was transferred to the National Museum of Australia in 1990.